LOCATION ADRIAN MI+IA IL IN MN NJ NY OH PA RI VT WI
The Adrian series consists of very deep, very poorly drained soils formed in herbaceous organic materials over sandy deposits on outwash plains, lake plains, lake terraces, flood plains, moraines, and till plains. Slope ranges from 0 to 1 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 889 mm (35 inches), and mean annual temperature is about 10.0 degrees C (50 degrees F).
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Sandy or sandy-skeletal, mixed, euic, mesic Terric Haplosaprists
TYPICAL PEDON: Adrian muck, on a less than 1 percent slope under marsh vegetation at an elevation of 199 meters (654 feet) above mean sea level. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)
Oa1--0 to 41 cm (16 inches); black (10YR 2/1) broken face, black (N 2.5/) rubbed muck (sapric material); about 12 percent fiber, less than 5 percent rubbed; moderate medium granular structure; primarily herbaceous fibers; neutral [pH 7.0 in water]; abrupt wavy boundary.
Oa2--41 to 51 cm (16 to 20 inches); black (10YR 2/1) broken face, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) rubbed muck (sapric material); about 15 percent fiber, less than 5 percent rubbed; weak coarse subangular blocky structure; primarily herbaceous fibers; slightly acid [pH 6.5 in water]; gradual wavy boundary.
Oa3--51 to 69 cm (20 to 27 inches); black (10YR 2/1) broken face, black (10YR 2/1) rubbed muck (sapric material); about 12 percent fiber, less than 5 percent rubbed; weak thick platy structure; primarily herbaceous fibers; moderately acid [pH 6.0 in water]; gradual wavy boundary.
Oa4--69 to 86 cm (27 to 34 inches); black (10YR 2/1) broken face, black (10YR 2/1) rubbed muck (sapric material); about 12 percent fiber, less than 5 percent rubbed; massive; primarily herbaceous fibers; strongly acid [pH 5.5 in water]; abrupt smooth boundary. [Combined thickness of the Oa horizon is 41 to 130 cm (16 to 51 inches).]
Cg1--86 to 152 cm (34 to 60 inches); gray (10YR 5/1) sand; single grain; loose; common medium prominent light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) masses of oxidized iron in the matrix; slightly alkaline; clear wavy boundary.
Cg2--152 to 203 cm (60 to 80 inches); dark gray (2.5Y 4/1) fine sand; single grain, loose; strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline.
TYPE LOCATION: Gratiot County, Michigan; about 1 1/2 miles southeast of Ashley; 2,040 feet north and 100 feet east of the southwest corner of sec. 16, T. 9 N., R. 1 W.; USGS Ashley, MI topographic quadrangle; lat. 43 degrees 10 minutes 2.4 seconds N. and long. 84 degrees 26 minutes 50.6 seconds W., NAD 27; UTM Zone 16, 707498 easting and 4782563 northing, NAD 83.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS:
Soil temperature: difference between mean summer and mean winter soil temperature is 17 to 25 degrees F or more
Depth to the sandy C horizon: 41 to 130 cm (16 to 51 inches)
Organic materials: derived primarily from herbaceous plants, but some layers contain as much as 50 percent material of woody origin
Surface tier ( Oa1 or Oap horizon):
Hue: 5YR to 10YR, or is neutral
Value: 2 or 2.5
Chroma: 0 to 3
Organic material: dominantly muck (sapric material) or less commonly mucky peat (hemic material); some pedons have a thin layer 2 to 10 cm (1 to 4 inches) thick of sphagnum moss on the surface
Reaction: strongly acid to neutral
Subsurface and bottom tiers (Oa, Oe, or Oi horizons):
Hue: 2.5YR to 10YR, or is neutral
Value: 2, 2.5, or 3
Chroma: 0 to 3
Organic material: dominantly muck (sapric material); or less commonly thin layers less than 25 cm (10 inches) thick of mucky peat (hemic material) or thin layers less than 13 cm (5 inches) thick of peat (fibric material); some pedons have a sedimentary peat layer present above the C horizon that is 2 to 5 cm (1 to 2 inches) thick
Reaction: strongly acid to neutral
C or Cg horizon:
Hue: 2.5YR to 5Y, or is neutral
Value: 2 to 6
Chroma: 0 to 4
Texture: sand, coarse sand, fine sand, or loamy sand, or their gravelly or very gravelly analogues; strata of finer textures may be present
Rock fragment content: 0 to 60 percent
Reaction: slightly acid to moderately alkaline
COMPETING SERIES: These are the
Timakwa series. Fishtrap soils have a difference of less than 16 degrees F between mean summer and mean winter soil temperatures and are more acid than slightly acid in the underlying mineral material. Timakwa soils are derived primarily from woody organic materials and have woody fragments 3/4 inch to a foot in diameter in some part of the organic materials.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Adrian soils are in shallow closed depressions primarily on outwash plains, lake plains, lake terraces, and flood plains, but can occur within moraines and till plains. Areas range from a few acres to several hundred acres in size. Slope gradients range from 0 to 1 percent. Adrian soils formed in herbaceous organic materials over sandy deposits. Adjacent upland soils are usually sandy. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 737 to 1143 mm (29 to 45 inches). Mean annual temperature ranges from 8.9 to 11.7 degrees C (48 to 53 degrees F). Frost-free period is 120 to 180 days. Elevation is 177 to 466 meters (580 feet to 1,530 feet) above mean sea level.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the
Granby soils. The very poorly drained Antung, Edselton, and Houghton soils are on similar landform positions as Adrian soils. Antung soils formed in less than 41 cm (16 inches) of herbaceous organic material. Edselton soils are underlain by marl and sand. Houghton soils formed in herbaceous organic deposits more than 130 cm (51 inches) thick and are the most common associate. The poorly drained or very poorly drained Granby soils are sandy throughout, and generally are at the margins of the depressions.
DRAINAGE AND SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY: Very poorly drained. Depth to the top of an apparent seasonal high water table ranges from 30 cm (1 foot) above the surface to 30 cm (1 foot) below the surface between September and June in normal years. Potential for surface runoff is negligible. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is moderately high or high in the organic material and high or very high in the sandy material. Permeability is moderately slow to moderately rapid in the organic material and rapid in the sandy material. In the flooded phase, areas are subject to frequent flooding for long periods between October and June.
USE AND VEGETATION: Most of this soil is in native vegetation. Much of it is in marsh grasses including sedges, reeds, grasses, and shrubs such as willow, alder, quaking aspen, and dogwood. Some areas have been drained to various degrees and are used for hay and pasture. A small proportion is used for cropland. Corn and truck crops are the principal crops.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: MLRAs 89, 95A, 95B, 96, 97, 98, 99, 101, 103, 105, 108B, 110, 111A, 111B, 111C, 111D, 114B, 115A, 139, 140, 144A, 144B, 145, 148, 149B in the southern parts of lower Michigan, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Minnesota, New York, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Wisconsin. The series is of large extent.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: AMHERST, MASSACHUSETTS
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Sanilac County, Michigan, 1955.
REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
Muck (sapric material): from the surface to a depth of 86 cm (34 inches) (Oa1, Oa2, Oa3, and Oa4 horizons).
Terric feature: mineral material from a depth of 86 to 152 cm (34 to 60 inches) (Cg horizon).
Several flooded phases and depth phases have been recognized. These phases will need to be evaluated during modernization updates. Drained and undrained phases have been recognized.
ADDITIONAL DATA: Characterization data is available from the National Soil Survey Laboratory, Lincoln, NE.
National Cooperative Soil Survey