LOCATION ALBATON                 IA+KS MO NE SD

Established Series
Rev. LEB-RAL-RJB
06/2015

ALBATON SERIES


The Albaton series consists of very deep, poorly or very poorly drained soils on flood plains. Albaton soils formed in calcareous alluvium. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. Mean annual air temperature is about 50 degrees F. Mean annual precipitation is about 25 inches.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine, smectitic, calcareous, mesic Vertic Fluvaquents

TYPICAL PEDON: Albaton silty clay, on a nearly level flood plain, in a cultivated field, at an elevation of 965 feet above sea level. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)

Ap--0 to 7 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) silty clay, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) dry; moderate very fine and fine subangular blocky structure; firm; slightly effervescent; slightly alkaline; clear smooth boundary. (6 to 9 inches thick)

Cg--7 to 60 inches; alternating layers of olive gray (5Y 4/2) and dark gray (5Y 4/1) silty clay; massive with weak thin alluvial stratification; firm; few thin strata of silt loam below 40 inches; few thin strata darkened by organic matter below 24 inches; common fine distinct olive brown (2.5Y 4/4) and brown (10YR 4/3) redoximorphic concentrations; strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline.

TYPE LOCATION: Mills County, Iowa; about 8 miles southeast of Council Bluffs; about 1,080 feet west and 93 feet south of the northeast corner of sec. 1, T. 73 N., R. 44 W.; Council Bluffs South USGS quadrangle; lat. 41 degrees 9 minutes 36 seconds N. and long. 95 degrees 50 minutes 44 seconds W., NAD 83

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS:
Depth to redoximorphic concentrations--6 to 12 inches
Depth to carbonates--0 to 10 inches
Content of calcium sulfate--0 percent
Electrical conductivity--0 to 2 dS/m
Content of clay in the particle-size control section (weighted average)--50 to 60 percent
Content of sand in the particle-size control section (weighted average)--0 to 5 percent fine sand and sand coarser than fine sand

Ap horizon:
Hue--10YR or 2.5Y
Value--3
Chroma--1 or 2
Texture--silty clay or clay
Clay content--40 to 60 percent
Sand content--1 to 5 percent
Calcium carbonate equivalent--5 to 30 percent
Reaction--neutral or slightly alkaline
Moist bulk density--1.20 to 1.40 g/cc

Overwash phases:
Texture--silt loam or silty clay loam
Clay content--18 to 40 percent
Sand content--1 to 30 percent
Thickness--10 to 20 inches

Cg horizon:
Hue--2.5Y, 5Y, or is neutral
Value--4 or 5
Chroma--0 to 2
Texture--silty clay or clay
Clay content--50 to 60 percent
Sand content--1 to 5 percent
Calcium carbonate equivalent--5 to 30 percent
Reaction--slightly alkaline or moderately alkaline
Moist bulk density--1.20 to 1.45 g/cc

Weak thin platy alluvial stratification occurs between strata of different clay content. Individual strata have firm or very firm consistence

Some pedons have strata with hue of 10YR or is neutral, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 0 or 1, which are less than 10 inches thick

Some pedons have strata with higher or lower clay content, which are less than 6 inches thick

Some pedons contain sandy materials below 60 inches

Some pedons have dark colored buried horizons more than 10 inches thick below a depth of 60 inches.

COMPETING SERIES: These are the Abbott, Apishapa and Boruff series.
Abbott--are in areas that have 7 to 11 inches of annual precipitation and have electrical conductivity of more than 8 dS/m in the series control section
Apishapa--are in areas that have 6 to 16 inches of annual precipitation and have 2 percent calcium sulfate in the lower two thirds of the series control section
Boruff--are in areas that have 10 to 19 inches of annual precipitation and have electrical conductivity of 2 to 8 dS/m in the lower two thirds of the series control section

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING:
Parent material--calcareous alluvium
Landform--flood plains
Slopes--0 to 2 percent
Elevation--700 to 1,950 feet above sea level
Mean annual air temperature--45 to 56 degrees F.
Mean annual precipitation--15 to 36 inches
Frost-free period--120 to 190 days

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Blake, Modale, Onawa, Percival and Waubonsie soils.
Blake--are in slightly higher landscape positions and have a clay content of 22 to 35 percent in the particle-size control section
Modale--are in slightly higher landscape positions and have a clay content of 10 to 18 percent in the upper half of the series control section
Onawa--are in slightly higher landscape positions and have a clay content of 12 to 18 percent in the lower two thirds of the series control section
Percival--are in slightly higher landscape positions and have a clay content of 2 to 12 percent in the lower half of the particle-size control section
Waubonsie--are in slightly higher landscape positions and have a clay content of 12 to 35 percent in the upper half of the series control section

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY:
Drainage class--poorly or very poorly drained--a saturated zone occurs within a depth of 1 foot during March to June in normal years and is considered apparent
Permeability--very slow or slow
Surface runoff potential--low to negligible
Flooding--rare to frequent flooding for brief to long periods during the months of February to November from precipitation events and snowmelt and flooding from streambank overflow is limited where dams and levees protect areas
Ponding--depressional phase has up to 1 foot of water above the surface for long periods during late winter and spring in normal years and after heavy precipitation events

USE AND VEGETATION:
Most areas are cultivated. The principal crops are corn, small grains, and soybeans. Most areas are drained by surface ditches or land grading. The native vegetation is big bluestem, little bluestem, western wheatgrass, prairie cordgrass, kentucky bluegrass, blue grama, sedges and other species of the tall grass prairie that are tolerant of excessive wetness. See Additional Data section for native vegetative cover in Iowa.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT:
LRR M, MLRAs 55C, 102B, 107; LRR G, MLRAs 63A and 63B; the Missouri River flood plain and flood plains of tributary streams in Iowa, Nebraska, South Dakota, Kansas and Missouri. This series is of moderate extent.

MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Indianapolis, Indiana

SERIES ESTABLISHED: Monona County, Iowa, 1956.

REMARKS:
Particle-size control section--the zone from a depth of 10 to 40 inches (Cg horizon);
series control section--the zone from the surface to a depth of 60 inches (Ap and Cg horizons).

Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon:
ochric epipedon--the zone from the surface to a depth of 7 inches (Ap horizon);
aquents suborder--redoximorphic concentrations in the zone from 7 to 60 inches (Cg horizon);
aquic moisture regime. 1/19/2011-TYPE LOCATION error was corrected.

Taxonomy version--second edition, 1999.

ADDITIONAL DATA:
Laboratory data--Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa pedons 98-IA-193-038A, 96-IA-193-3879, 96-IA-193-917
Laboratory data--National Soil Survey Laboratory, Lincoln, Nebraska pedons S96IA-193-018 and S70-133-005 (http://ssldata.sc.egov.usda.gov/).

In Iowa, the native vegetative cover is a herbaceous wetland community commonly inhabited with Bluejoint Grasses, White Cutgrasses, Fox Sedges, Oval Sedges, Inland Rushes, Torreys Rushes, Dark Green Bulrushes, Flatstem Spikerushes, Blue Vervains, Indian Hemps, Winged Loosestrifes, Wild Mints, and Water Horehounds. Source: Iowa State Office, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Des Moines, IA.


National Cooperative Soil Survey
U.S.A.