LOCATION BARNESTON WA
The Barneston series consists of very deep, somewhat excessively drained soils formed in volcanic ash and loess over sandy and gravelly glacial outwash. Barneston soils occur on kames, eskers, and moraines, on glacial outwash plains and glacial drift plains. They have slopes ranging from 0 to 65 percent. The mean annual precipitation is about 1,500 millimeters and the mean annual air temperature is about 9 degrees C.
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Ashy-skeletal over sandy or sandy-skeletal, glassy over isotic, mesic Typic Vitrixerands
TYPICAL PEDON: Barneston gravelly ashy loam on a 3 percent linear slope under a forest canopy. (Colors are for moist soils unless otherwise noted. All textures are apparent field textures.)
Oi--0 to 3 cm; slightly decomposed needles and twigs.
A--3 to 8 cm; black (10YR 2/1) gravelly ashy loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) dry; moderate fine granular structure; slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; common very fine roots; common very fine irregular pores; 20 percent rounded gravel; moderately acid (pH 5.8); abrupt smooth boundary. (0 to 15 cm thick)
Bw1--8 to 15 cm; reddish brown (5YR 4/4) very gravelly ashy loam, brown (7.5YR 5/4) dry; weak fine granular structure; soft, very friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic, weakly smeary; common very fine roots; common fine irregular pores; 35 percent rounded gravel; strongly acid (pH 5.4); clear smooth boundary. (5 to 15 cm thick)
Bw2--15 to 48 cm; brown (7.5YR 4/4) very gravelly ashy loam, reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/6) dry; weak fine granular structure, soft, very friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic, weakly smeary; few fine roots; common very fine irregular pores; 50 percent rounded gravel; 5 percent cobbles; strongly acid (pH 5.4); abrupt wavy boundary. (20 to 36 cm thick)
2C--48 to 152 cm; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) extremely gravelly sand, light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) dry; single grain; loose; many fine irregular pores; 50 percent rounded gravel, 20 percent cobbles; strongly acid (pH 5.4)
TYPE LOCATION: Skagit County, Washington; about 3 kilometers northeast of Hamilton, Washington; 494 meters north and 262 meters east of the southwest corner, sec. 6, T. 35 N., R. 7 E.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS:
Mean annual soil temperature: 7 to 10 degrees C.
Moisture control section: dry 45 to 60 consecutive days following summer solstice in most years
Reaction: moderately acid or strongly acid.
Depth to lithologic discontinuity: 38 to 53 cm
Estimated properties of the volcanic ash influenced layers:
>Volcanic glass content in the 0.02 to 2 mm fraction: 5 to 20 percent
>Ammonium oxalate extractable Al+ Fe: 1.0 to 2.0 percent
Hue: 7.5YR or 10YR
Value: 2 to 4 moist, 4 to 7 dry
Chroma: 1 to 4, moist and dry.
Clay content: 3 to 15 percent
Fine earth texture: ashy loam, ashy sandy loam, or ashy coarse sandy loam
Total fragments: 15 to 35 percent
Gravel content: 15 to 35 percent
Cobble content: 0 to 10 percent
Some pedons have an E horizon.
Hue: 5YR, 7.5YR or 10YR
Value: 3 to 5 moist, 5 or 6 dry
Chroma: 3 to 6, moist and dry.
Clay content: 1 to 8 percent
Fine-earth fractions: ashy sandy loam, ashy coarse sandy loam, loamy sand, or sand
Total fragments: 35 to 75 percent
Gravel content: 35 to 65 percent
Cobble content: 0 to 20 percent
Hue:10YR, 2.5Y or 5Y
Value and chroma are variable
Clay content: 0 to 5 percent
Fine-earth fractions: loamy sand, loamy coarse sand, sand, or coarse sand
Total fragments: 35 to 80 percent
Gravel content: 35 to 75 percent
Cobble content: 15 to 25 percent
Stone content: 0 to 5 percent
COMPETING SERIES: There are no competing series.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Barneston soils occur on kames, eskers, and moraines, on glacial outwash plains and glacial drift plains. Elevation is 25 to 600 meters. Slopes are 0 to 65 percent. The soils formed in volcanic ash and loess over sandy and gravelly outwash. The mean annual precipitation ranges 1,000 to 2,400 millimeters, but is dominantly 1,200 to 2,000 millimeters. Mean January temperature is about 3 degrees C.; mean July temperature is about 19 degrees C; and the mean annual air temperature is 8 to 10 degrees C. The frost-free season is 180 to 220 days.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the
Winston series. The Birdsview, Greenwater, Indianola, and Ragnar soils are sandy. Blethen soils are loamy-skeletal. Nargar soils are sandy. Tokul soils have a densic horizon at 50 to 100 cm. Winston soils are coarse-loamy over sandy or sandy-skeletal.
DRAINAGE AND SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY: Somewhat excessively drained; Saturated hydraulic conductivity is moderately high in the upper 50 cm and very high below.
USE AND VEGETATION: Used for timber production. Native vegetation is Douglas-fir, western hemlock, western redcedar, red alder, and bigleaf maple, with an understory of Oregon- grape, salal, western swordfern, western brackenfern, red huckleberry, creambush oceanspray, trailing blackberry, bedstraw, longtube twinflower, broadleaf starflower, evergreen huckleberry, Pacific dogwood, Pacific yew, and vine maple.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Northwestern Washington. MLRA 2. The series is moderately extensive.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Portland, Oregon
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Pierce County, Washington, l939.
Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
>Ochric epipedon- from the surface to 8 cm
>Andic soil properties - from 3 to 48 cm
>Volcanic ash - from 3 to 48 cm
>Cambic horizon - from 8 to 48 cm.
>Lithologic discontinuity - 48 cm
>Particle size control section- from 3 to 103 cm
Soil moisture regime - Xeric
Soil temperature regime - Mesic
>The Barneston OSD was updated as part of the SDJR initiative.
>The classification was updated from Sandy-skeletal, isotic, mesic Typic Vitrixerand to Ashy-skeletal over sandy or sandy-skeletal, glassy over isotic, mesic Typic Vitrixerands due to the previous classification incorrectly not recognizing the contrasting materials.
>Ashy modifiers were added to the horizons that comprised the zone of andic soil properties.
>"Rounded shot-like aggregates" were removed from the Bw1 and Bw2 horizons, 10 and 15% respectively and these percentages were added to the gravel content.
>The Bw were Bs horizons in the previous version of this OSD. We reverted them back to Bw horizons because those were the horizons on the original version.
>Additional observations and lab data would be beneficial to understand the ash content, illuvial processes (Bs or Bw), and presence or absence of concretions.
>Classification only changed because of recent amendments to Soil Taxonomy. Estimated 5 to 20 percent volcanic glass and 1.0 to 2.0 percent Al + 1/2 Fe by acid-oxalate extract.
Laboratory data are available on 2 pedons Lab Numbers S71WA27-3, 278-283 and S71WA27-4, 284-289.
National Cooperative Soil Survey