LOCATION BARTO              MN
Established Series


The Barto series consists of shallow, well drained soils that formed in a 20 to 51 cm thick mantle of loamy till overlying unweathered bedrock. They have slopes of 2 to 45 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 750 mm and mean annual air temperature is about 4.5 degrees C.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Loamy, isotic, frigid Lithic Eutrudepts

TYPICAL PEDON: Barto gravelly sandy loam with 8 percent slope at an elevation of 460 meters. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)

A-- 0 to 5 cm; black (10YR 2/1) gravelly sandy loam, dark gray (10YR 4/1) dry; weak medium granular structure; friable; many fine and medium and few coarse roots; 15 percent gravel and 5 percent cobbles; strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. (0 to 10 cm thick)

Bw-- 5 to 33 cm; brown (7.5YR 4/3) gravelly sandy loam; weak fine and medium subangular blocky structure; friable; many fine and medium and few coarse roots; 15 percent gravel and 5 percent cobbles; moderately acid; abrupt wavy boundary. (41 to 51 cm thick)

2R--33 cm; unweathered bedrock

TYPE LOCATION: St. Louis County, Minnesota; 4340 feet south and 800 feet west of the northeast corner of section 25, T. 54 N., R.14 W.; USGS Boulder Lake Reservoir NE Quadrangle latitude 47 degrees 07 minutes 40.5 seconds N, and longitude 92 degrees 03 minutes 3.5 seconds W., NAD 27.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Thickness of mantle and depth to bedrock are 20 to 51 cm. Coarse fragments by volume ranges from 5 to 35 percent. It is very strongly acid to moderately acid.

Some pedons have an O horizon.

The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is sandy loam, loam, fine sandy loam, very fine sandy loam or silt loam or their gravelly analogues.

The Bw horizon has hue of 5YR or 7.5YR, value of 3 to 5 and chroma of 3 or 4. It is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, very fine sandy loam, loam or their gravelly analogues.

COMPETING SERIES: These are the Ensign and Nykanen series. Ensign soils have limestone bedrock at depths above 51 cm. Nykanen soils have sandstone or limestone bedrock above depths of 51 cm.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: These soils occur on complex bedrock controlled surfaces. They formed in friable loamy till from the Superior lobe of the late Wisconsinan glaciation. Slopes range from 2 to 45 percent. The till is 20 to 51 cm in thickness and overlies basalt, granite or gabbro bedrock. Mean annual air temperature ranges from 2 to 6 degrees C, and the mean annual precipitation ranges from 710 to 790 cm. Annual frost-free days range from 80 to 140 . The elevation above sea level ranges from 200 to 600 meters.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: On the Highland moraine, these are the Ahmeek, Canosia, Giese, Greysolon, Hermantown, Mesaba, and Normanna soils. The well drained Ahmeek soils occur on shoulders and sideslopes. The poorly drained Canosia soils occur on toeslopes, flats and in slight depressions. The very poorly drained Giese soils occur in depressions and swales. The moderately well drained Greysolon soils are on bedrock controlled areas, are typically less sloping or less convex than Barto soils and have saturation above a depth of 102 cm. The somewhat poorly drained Hermantown soils occur on footlsopes, flats and slight rises on flats. The well drained Mesaba are on similar landscape but have bedrock at 51 to 102 cm in the profile. The moderately well drained Normanna soils occur on summits and sideslopes.
On the Toimi drumlin field these are the Brimson, Nevens and Toimi soils. The somewhat poorly drained Brimson soils occur on footslopes, summit flats and some backslopes and shoulders. The poorly drained Nevens soils occur on flats and toeslopes. The moderately well drained Toimi soils occur on shoulders, summits and sideslopes.

DRAINAGE AND SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY: Well drained. Surface runoff is low to high. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is 4.23 to 14.11 micrometers per second (.6 to 2 inches per hour).

USE AND VEGETATION: These soils are mostly in mixed deciduous and coniferous forests. Major resource uses are related to recreation, timber, water and wildlife.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: MLRA-93A. Northeastern Minnesota. Small extent.


SERIES ESTABLISHED: Kawishiwi Area, Minnesota, in 1972.

REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this soil are: ochric horizon - from the surface to a depth of 5 cm (A horizon); cambic horizon - the zone from 5 cm to 33 cm (Bw horizon); great group class based on base saturation above 60 percent in a layer between 25 and 75 cm from the soil surface.

The initial review draft (DHP-HRF, 6/70) of this series had a placement of Lithic Haplorthods. Subsequent laboratory analyses indicate that the upper part of the B horizon of these soils meet all of the requirements for a spodic horizon except for item 3.a. of chapter 3, page 32 of Soil Taxonomy. However, this series is challenged for Haplorthods because the B horizon is marginal to a spodic horizon. For clarity, a new type location was chosen.

ADDITIONAL DATA: Refer to Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station Central File Code No. 572 for results and some laboratory analysis of the typical pedon and to No. 592 and 909 for results of analyses of two additional pedons.

National Cooperative Soil Survey