LOCATION BELLICUM WAEstablished Series
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Ashy-skeletal, glassy, frigid Typic Udivitrands
TYPICAL PEDON: Bellicum very paragravelly sand - under a coniferous forest on a 39 percent southeast facing convex upper back slope at an elevation of 2,700 feet. (The soil was moist when described. Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated. All textures are apparent field textures.)
Oe--2 inches to 0; partially decomposed needles, twigs, cones and bark.
E--0 to l inch; dark grayish brown (l0YR 4/2) very paragravelly loamy sand, light brownish gray (l0YR 6/2) dry; single grain; loose; many very fine, fine and medium roots; 45 percent 2 mm to 20 mm size rounded and subangular pumice fragments; moderately acid (pH 5.6); abrupt wavy boundary. (0 to 2 inches thick)
Bs1--l to 7 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) very paragravelly sand, brownish yellow (l0YR 6/6) dry; single grain; loose; many very fine, fine and medium roots and common coarse roots; 55 percent rounded and subangular 2 mm to 2 cm size pumice fragments; slightly acid (pH 6.2); abrupt wavy boundary. (7 to l3 inches thick)
Bs2--7 to l8 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/6) very paragravelly sand, yellow (l0YR 7/6) dry; single grain; loose; many fine, fine and medium roots and common coarse roots; 55 percent rounded and subangular 2 mm to 2 cm size pumice fragments; slightly acid (pH 6.2); abrupt wavy boundary. (7 to l3 inches thick)
2Bwb--l8 to 33 inches; dark brown (l0YR 3/3) very gravelly fine sandy loam, very pale brown (l0YR 7/4) dry; weak fine and medium subangular blocky structure; hard, firm, slightly sticky, slightly plastic and weakly smeary; many very fine and fine roots; common medium and coarse roots; 35 percent andesite pebbles, 20 percent andesite cobbles; moderately acid (pH 5.8); clear wavy boundary. (l2 to l8 inches thick)
2BCb--33 to 50 inches; dark yellowish brown (l0YR 4/4) extremely cobbly sandy loam, light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4) dry; weak fine subangular blocky structure; slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic and weakly smeary; common fine and very fine roots, few medium and coarse roots; 40 percent andesite pebbles, 35 percent andesite cobbles; moderately acid (pH 5.6); clear wavy boundary. (ll to 20 inches thick)
3R--50 inches; fractured andesite.
TYPE LOCATION: Lewis County, Washington; 20 feet west of logging road in the SW N., R. SE.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Mean annual soil temperature ranges from 43 to 46 F. Depth to fractured bedrock ranges from 40 to more than 60 inches. Rock fragments in the particle-size control section, including pumice fragments and andesite pebbles, range from 45 to 75 percent. Depth to the 2Bwb horizon is 14 to 20 inches. The soil is strongly acid to slightly acid throughout.
The Bs horizon has hue of 5YR through l0YR, value of 4 or 5 moist and 5 through 7 dry, and chroma of 4 through 6. Apparent field texture is very paragravelly loamy sand or very paragravelly sand.
The 2Bwb horizon has value of 3 or 4 moist, 6 or 7 dry, and chroma of 3 or 4 moist and dry. It is very gravelly or very cobbly fine sandy loam, sandy loam, or loam.
The 2BCb horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y and has 60 to 90 percent rock fragments.
COMPETING SERIES: These are the Dorb and Montborne series. Dorb soils lack an ashy-pumiceous surface mantle. Montborne soils are moderately well drained and 20 to 40 inches deep to dense glacial till.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Bellicum soils are on mountain slopes. Elevation ranges from l,800 to 2,800 feet. Slopes are 8 to 90 percent. The soils formed in a mantle of pumice and volcanic ash over residuum and colluvium from porphoritic andesite. Average annual precipitation is 70 to 95 inches. Mean annual temperature is 42 to 44 F. The growing season (28 F.) is l50 to l70 days.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Bromo, Cattcreek, Cotteral, Jonas and Pheeney soils. Jonas soils have an umbric epipedon and are medial. Pheeney soils have an umbric epipedon and are medial-skeletal. Bromo soils are cindery throughout. Cattcreek soils are cryic. Cotteral soils are cryic and are pumiceous or ashy-pumiceous over medial.
DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained; slow to medium runoff; moderately rapid or rapid permeability in the upper part and moderate in the buried horizons.
USE AND VEGETATION: Used for timber production, watershed and wildlife habitat. Vegetation is western hemlock, Douglas-fir, western redcedar, scattered Pacific silver fir, and red alder with an understory of Oregon-grape, red huckleberry, salal, western swordfern, and trailing blackberry.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: West slopes of the Cascade mountains in Lewis County, Washington. The series is of small extent.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Portland, Oregon
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Lewis County, Washington, l979.
REMARKS: Classification changed 7/98 because of 1998 Keys to Soil Taxonomy.
Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon:
cambic horizon - from 1 to 33 qualifying as a sesquioxide accumulation zone not meeting spodic materials criteria (Bs1 and Bs2 horizons) with regards to chemical criteria and pH. This zone is assumed to have silt-sized and larger pellets and cracked coatings.
buried cambic horizon - from 33 to 50 inches.
Particle-size control section - from 0 to 40 inches with 0 to 18 inches qualifying as ashy-pumiceous and 18 to 40 qualifying as ashy-skeletal. Family particle-size class is based on the thickest layer or ashy-skeletal.
Classification changed 7/98 based on 1998 Keys to Taxonomy.