LOCATION BILLYHAW TX+AREstablished Series
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Very-fine, smectitic, thermic Typic Hapluderts
TYPICAL PEDON: Billyhaw clay on nearly level 0.5 percent slope in pasture. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated).
A1--0 to 7 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) clay; moderate fine subangular blocky and granular structure; extremely hard, very firm, sticky and plastic; many fine roots; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
A2--7 to 25 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) clay; moderate fine subangular blocky and granular structure; extremely hard, very firm, sticky and plastic; common fine roots; few fine pores; neutral; gradual wavy boundary. (Combined thickness of the A horizons are 12 to 26 inches)
Bss1--25 to 39 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/4) clay; moderate coarse prismatic structure parting tomoderate fine angular blocky; extremely hard, very firm, verysticky and veryplastic; few fine roots; few fine pores; few large distinctslickensides; few small iron-manganese concentrations on faces of peds; few fine concretions of calcium carbonate; few pockets and old cracks partially filled with silt loam material; strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
Bss2--39 to 57 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/4) clay; weak coarse prismatic structure parting to moderate fine angular blocky; extremely hard, very firm, verysticky and very plastic; few fine roots; few fine pores; few large distinct slickensides; few fine pitted concretions of calcium carbonate; few small iron-manganese concentrations on faces of peds; few pockets of silt loam; strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline; clear smooth boundary. (Combined thickness of the Bss horizon is 30 to60 inches)
2BC--57 to 75 inches; reddish brown (5YR 5/4) silt loam; weak coarse prismatic structure parting to coarse angular blocky structure; slightly hard, very friable; slightly sticky and slightly plastic; few thin strata of reddish brown (5YR 4/4) silty clay loam; strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline.
TYPE LOCATION: Bowie County, Texas; from the intersection of Texas Highway 8 and Interstate Highway 30 in New Boston, Texas; 6.2 miles north on Texas Highway 8 to county road; 1.4 miles west on county road; 0.9 mile north along fence.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Solum thickness more than 80 inches. Depth to calcareous layers is greater than 20 inches. When dry, cracks more than 1 inch wide extend from the surface to a depth of more than 12 inches. Cracks remain open for 60 to 90 cumulative days in most years. Weighted average clay content of the particle size control section ranges from 60 to 80 percent. Cycles of microknolls and microdepressions are 6 to 24 feet. In undisturbed areas, microknolls are 3 to 10 inches higher than the microdepressions. Slickenside are below depths of 16 to 36 inches.
The A horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 2. Reaction ranges from slightly acid to slightly alkaline.
The Bss horizon has hue of 2.5YR to 7.5YR, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 2 to 6. Redox concentrations range from none to common in shades of reddish brown and dark brown. In some pedons few to common grayish redox depletions are within 30 inches of the surface. Concretions of calcium carbonate range from 0 to 10 percent in the lower Bss horizons. Some pedons contain masses of secondary carbonates. Reaction is neutral to moderately alkaline.
The 2BC horizons have hue of 2.5YR to 7.5YR, value of 3 to 5, and chroma of 3 to 6. Reaction is slightly alkaline or moderately alkaline. Texture is silt loam, silty clay loam, or sandy clay loam. Most pedons contain strata of one or more of these textures. Concretions of calcium carbonate range from 0 to 10 percent. Some pedons contain masses of secondary carbonates.
COMPETING SERIES: These are the Kaufman, Trinity, and Wiergate series. Similar soils are the Francitas, Ganado, and Pledger series. Kaufman soils have chroma of 1 or less in the upper part. Trinity soils are calcareous throughout. Wiergate soils have chroma of 1 in the upper 12 inches. Francitas, Ganado and Pledger soils are in the hyperthermic family. In addition, Francitas and Ganado soils average less than 60 percent clay in the control section.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Billyhaw soils are on flood plains of the Red River. Slope ranges from 0 to 5 percent. The soil formed in alkaline clayey alluvium. Mean annual precipition ranges from 42 to 55 inches, and mean annual temperature ranges from 63 to 65 degrees F. Frost free days range from 220 to 260 days and elevations range from 250 to 450 days. Thornthwaite P-E indices exceed 64.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the competing Desha, Redlake, and Roebuck series and the Dardanelle, Kiomatia, Perry, and Severn series. Dardanelle soils have fine-silty control sections. Desha and Redlake soils are on similar positions. Kiomatia and Severn soils lack mollic epipedons and are in higher positions in the landscape. Perry soils are poorly drained, have 1 chroma extending to depths greater than 20 inches and are in lower-lying positions in the landscape. Roebuck soils are in slightly lower concave positions.
DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Moderately well drained. Runoff is low on slopes less than 1 percent, medium on 1 to 3 percent slopes, and high on 3 to 5 percent slopes. Permeability is very slow. The soil is rarely to commonly flooded.
USE AND VEGETATION: Used mainly for cropland. Main crops are soybeans, cotton, and wheat. Some areas are in pasture of common bermudagrass, improved bermudagrass, or tall fescue. Native vegetation was pecan, green ash, osage orange, elm, cottonwood, cherrybark oak, water oak, and willow oak, with an understory of grasses and shrubs.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Mainly along the Red River in northeast Texas, in Arkansas, and Oklahoma. The series is of moderate extent.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Temple, Texas
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Bowie County, Texas; 1978.
REMARKS: Classification change from Typic Chromuderts to Typic Hapluderts based on Amendment 16, SOIL TAXONOMY (2/94). Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
Mollic epipedon - 0 to 25 inches (A horizons)
Cambic horizon - 25 to 75 inches.
Vertic properties - slickensides, 25 to 57 inches (Bss horizons)
SOIL INTERPRETATION RECORD NO: TX0771