Established Series


The Borden series have brown, slightly acid A horizons which are low in organic matter (less than 1 percent). The A horizons abruptly overlie brown, moderately alkaline clay loam Bt horizons. The solum is developed from slightly calcareous stratified granitic alluvium.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, thermic Typic Haploxeralfs

TYPICAL PEDON: Borden fine sandy loam (cultivated site). (Colors for dry conditions unless otherwise noted).

A--0 to 17 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sandy loam, dark brown (10YR 4/3) moist; massive; slightly hard, very friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; numerous fine roots and insect burrows; slightly acid (pH 6.2); abrupt smooth boundary. (5 to 8 inches thick)

B2t--17 to 21 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) clay loam, dark brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate coarse blocky structure; hard, firm, sticky and very plastic; moderately thick continuous clay films on ped faces, streaked in places with dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2); roots tend to concentrate in cracks; moderately alkaline (pH 8.4); clear smooth boundary. (5 to 12 inches thick).

B3ca--21 to 28 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) clay loam, dark brown (10YR 4/3) moist; weak coarse blocky structure; very hard, firm, sticky and plastic; thin discontinuous clay films; very few roots penetrate into this layer; weakly calcareous with segregated lime occurring as streaks on the surfaces of the peds and small light colored nodules within the peds; very strongly alkaline (pH 9.2); gradual smooth boundary. (7 to 24 inches thick).

IIC--28 to 60 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) stratified alluvium, mainly loam and fine sandy loam, dark brown (10YR 4/3) moist; massive; slightly hard, friable, nonsticky and slightly plastic; to nonplastic; very strongly alkaline (pH 9.7); slightly calcareous with disseminated lime.

TYPE LOCATION: Madera County, California. SW 1/4, NE 1/4, sec. 35, T. 10 S., R. 18 E., about 6 miles northeast of Madera.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: These soils have ochric epipedons (less than 1 percent OM) and argillic horizons; the solum is about 28 inches thick. Mineralogy is mixed. The soil is usually moist but dry for at least 50 consecutive days. Mean annual soil temperature is 59 degrees F.

The A horizons range in color (10YR and 7.5YR hues) from pale brown, brown to light brownish gray and occasionally grayish brown; in texture from loam to fine sandy loams; and in reaction from slightly acid to mildly alkaline and noncalcareous to very slightly effervescent.

The B horizons range in color (10YR to 5YR hues) from pale brown, brown to strong brown to dark reddish brown; in texture from heavy loam, clay loam to sandy clay loam; in reaction from mildly to strongly alkaline with the lower B horizons being calcareous; and in structure from moderate to strong and medium to coarse angular blocky.

The C horizons are stratified, usually mildly calcareous and lime may be disseminated or in soft masses and nodules. The parent material apparently became calcareous under conditions of fluctuating high water table.

COMPETING SERIES: These include the Arbuckle, Esparto, Fallbrook, Montpellier, Pachappa, Ramona, Sesame, Snelling, Tehama and Wyman series in the same family and the related Atwater and Greenfield soils in another family. Arbuckle soils are gravelly and slightly acid throughout; Esparto soils are pale brown, have neutral B2t horizons and have a lithologic discontinuity at about 3 feet; Fallbrook soils have similar A horizons, reddish brown, slightly acid to neutral Bt horizons and coarse sandy medium acid C horizons; Montpellier soils are acid to neutral throughout, have red Bt horizons with reddish brown C horizons; Pachappa soils have pale brown to dark brown A horizons, neutral weak Bt horizons and moderately alkaline, stratified C horizons; Ramona soils are slightly acid and lack the abrupt AB boundary and the Bca horizon; Sesame soils have dark grayish brown to dark brown A horizons, dark brown sandy clay loam B horizons which grade into granite at moderate depths; Snelling soils lack the abrupt AB boundary and the Bca horizons. Tehama soils have pale brown, strongly acid silt loam Ap horizons, yellowish brown, slightly acid silty clay loam Bt horizons that become neutral with depth. Wyman soils have brown, slightly acid light clay loam A horizons and brown massive neutral clay loam Bt horizons and light brown stratified fine and moderately fine textured material that is neutral to mildly alkaline. Atwater soils have coarse loamy B horizons. Greenfield soils have a coarse sandy loam A horizon and a weakly developed, neutral to mildly alkaline Bt horizon.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: These soils occur under elevations of 1,000 feet on gently sloping older alluvial fans and basin rim positions that may be hummocky under natural conditions. They are of granitic alluvium. The climate is dry subhumid mesothermal with a mean annual precipitation of 8 to 15 inches with hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters; an average January temperature if 45 degrees F, an average July temperature of 79 degrees F and a mean annual temperature of 62 to 64 degrees F. Frost-free season is 225 to 250 days.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These include Grangeville, Hanford, Pachappa and Madera soils. Grangeville soils lack a B horizon and are almost uniform throughout their depth. Hanford soils also lack a B horizon and are almost uniform throughout their depth. Pachappa soils have slightly darker A horizons and a weak B. The Madera soils have a strongly cemented duripan at 30 inches or less below the surface.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: The soils are moderately well and well drained. Surface runoff is slow. Permeability is moderately slow to slow.

USE AND VEGETATION: Used for irrigated crops of cotton, alfalfa, grain and vineyards; small areas used for dryland grain and pasture.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Eastern side of central San Joaquin Valley, southern coast range and intermountain valleys of southern California. These soils are of minor extent.


SERIES ESTABLISHED: Madera County, California, 1953.

REMARKS: These soils were formerly classified in the (medial) Noncalcic Brown group.

The activity class was added to the classification in January of 2003. Competing series were not checked at that time. - ET

Last revised by the state on 5/68.

National Cooperative Soil Survey