LOCATION BRANTFORD ND+SD
The Brantford series consists of very deep, well drained soils that formed in loamy material underlain by beds of glaciofluvial sand and gravel containing appreciable amounts of shale. Permeability is moderate in the upper part and very rapid in the substratum. These soils are on outwash plains, beach ridges, eskers and terraces. Slopes range from 0 to 9 percent. Mean annual temperature is 4 degrees C, and mean annual precipitation is about 430 cm.
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-loamy over sandy or sandy-skeletal, mixed, superactive, frigid Typic Hapludolls
TYPICAL PEDON: Brantford loam - cultivated. (Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise stated)
Ap--0 to 15 cm; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loam, black (10YR 2/1) moist; moderate coarse and medium granular structure; slightly hard; friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; many roots; many fine pores; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.
A--15 to 23 cm; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) loam, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) moist; moderate medium prismatic structure parting to weak medium subangular blocky and thick platy; hard, friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; many roots; neutral; clear wavy boundary. (Combined A horizons 10 to 30 cm thick)
Bw--23 to 38 cm; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) loam, very dark grayish brown (2.5Y 3/2) moist; moderate medium prismatic structure parting to moderate medium subangular blocky; hard, friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; common roots; common fine pores; slightly alkaline; clear wavy boundary. (10 to 30 cm thick)
2Bk--38 to 102 cm; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) gravelly coarse sand, very dark grayish brown (2.5Y 3/2) moist; single grained; few roots in upper part; about 45 percent gravel; about 35 percent shale in the 0.1 to 76 mm fraction; thin carbonate coatings on bottom of pebbles; strong effervescence; moderately alkaline; clear wavy boundary. (0 to 100 cm thick)
2C--102 to 152 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) gravelly coarse sand, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist; single grained; about 20 percent gravel; about 35 percent shale in the 0.1 to 76 mm fraction; slight effervescence; moderately alkaline.
TYPE LOCATION: Benson County, North Dakota; about 3 miles west and 1 1/2 miles south of Tokio; 2,540 feet south and 150 feet east of the northwest corner, Sec. 17, T. 151 N., R. 64 W.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: The depth to sand and gravel ranges from 35 to 50 cm. The mollic epipedon ranges from 18 to 40 cm in thickness and commonly includes all or most of the Bw horizon. Wooded phases are recognized.
The A horizon has 10YR hue, value of 3 or 4 and 2 or 3 moist, and chroma of 1.5 or less in the upper part. It is loam, gravelly loam or clay loam averaging between 18 and 30 percent clay. It is slightly acid to slightly alkaline
The Bw horizon has 10YR or 2.5Y hue, value of 3 to 5 and 3 or 4 moist, and chroma of 1 to 3. It is a loam, gravelly loam, clay loam or gravelly clay loam averaging between 18 and 30 percent clay. It is neutral or slightly alkaline. It has weak or moderate medium to coarse prismatic structure that parts to medium or fine subangular blocky structure.
Some pedons have a 2Bw horizon 10 cm or less in thickness.
The 2Bk horizon has hue of 2.5Y or 5Y, value of 4 to 6 and 3 to 5 moist, and chroma of 1 to 3. It is gravelly or very gravelly sand or coarse sand. It is slightly alkaline or moderately alkaline. It has slight or strong effervescence with carbonate coatings on undersides of pebbles.
Some pedons have a thin Bk horizon.
The 2C horizon has hue to 10YR, 25Y or 5Y, value of 5 or 6 and 3 or 4 moist, and chroma of 1 to 4. It is sand coarse sand or loamy coarse sand containing 10 to 65 percent gravel. It has more than 20 percent shale in the 0.1 to 76 mm fraction.
COMPETING SERIES: These are the
Renshaw series in the same family and the
Vang series. Renshaw soils have 2C horizons that have less than 20 percent shale in the 0.1 to 76 mm fraction. Arvilla and Binford soils are sandy. Coe soils are sandy-skeletal. Vang soils have mollic epipedons greater than 40 cm thick.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Brantford soils are on level to gently rolling outwash plains, beach ridges, eskers and terraces. Slope gradients are mainly l to 5 percent, but ranges from 0 to 9 percent. The soils formed in a mantle of loamy materials underlain by beds of glaciofluvial sand and gravel containing appreciable amounts of shale. The mean annual temperature ranges from about 3 to 7 degrees C, and mean annual precipitation is about 410 to 510 inches, most of which falls in the spring and summer.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the competing
Vang soils and the
Walum soils. Binford, Coe, Divide, Fordville, Renshaw, Sioux, Vang and Walum soils are on nearby outwash plains. Divide soils are have an aquic moisture regime. Fordville soils have a mollic epipedon more than 16 inches thick. Sioux soils are sandy-skeletal. Walum soils are moderately well drained. Kensal soils are on level and slightly concave areas. They are moderately well drained.
DRAINAGE AND SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY: Well drained. Runoff is slow on nearly level slopes and medium on more sloping areas. Permeability is moderately-high in the upper part and very-high in the substratum.
USE AND VEGETATION: Nearly all the soils are cropped to small grains, flax, hay and pasture. Native vegetation is mid and tall prairie grasses such as blue grama, western wheatgrass, green needlegrass and sedges. Deciduous trees make up limited extent.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Eastern North Dakota and north central South Dakota. The soil is of moderate extent.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: St. Paul, Minnesota
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Walsh County, North Dakota, 1970.
REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
Mollic epipedon - the zone from the surface of the soil to a depth of 38 cm (Ap, A and Bw horizons).
National Cooperative Soil Survey