Established Series


The Brazito series consists of very deep, well drained, rapidly permeable soils that formed in sandy alluvium derived from a variety of igneous and sedimentary rocks. Brazito soils are on the flood plains and low terraces of major streams, and dunes. Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent. The mean annual precipitation is about 8 inches. The mean annual air temperature is about 61 degrees F.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Mixed, thermic Typic Torripsamments

TYPICAL PEDON: Brazito loamy fine sand - cultivated. (Colors are for dry soil unless stated otherwise.)

Ap--0 to 5 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) loamy fine sand, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; massive; soft, very friable, nonsticky and nonplastic; common very fine, and fine roots; common very fine irregular pores; strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline (pH 8.2); abrupt wavy boundary. (3 to 10 inches thick)

C--5 to 70 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine sand, brown (10YR 5/3) moist; single grain; loose, nonsticky and nonplastic; few very fine and fine roots; common fine irregular pores; moderately alkaline (pH 8.0). (60 or more inches thick)

TYPE LOCATION: Dona Ana Co., New Mexico; 500 feet west of the northeast corner of Section 9, T. 23 S., R. 1 E. 106 degrees, 50 minutes, 15 seconds west longitude; 32 degrees, 19 minutes, 44 seconds north latitude.


Soil Moisture: Intermittently moist in some parts of the soil moisture control section during December through March and July through September. Driest during May and June. Typic aridic soil moisture regime.

Soil Temperature: 60 to 72 degrees F.

Reaction: neutral to moderately alkaline

Particle-size control section: silt plus clay averages less than 10 percent

A horizon
Hue: 7.5YR, 10YR
Value: 4 to 6 dry, 3 to 6 moist
Chroma: 2 to 4, dry or moist

C horizon
Hue: 10YR, 7.5YR
Value: 4 to 7 dry, 3 to 5 moist
Chroma: 1 to 6, dry or moist

COMPETING SERIES: These are Artir (I)(CA), Birdcanyon (CA), Bluepoint (NV), Boxjoe (I)(CA), Butterbredt (I)(CA), Cajon (CA), Copia (NM), Kajoe (I)(CA), Koehn (CA), Maynard Lake (NV), Moapa (NV), Morongo (T)(CA), Pintura (UT), Toquop (NV), University (I)(NM), Yander (T)(CA), and Yturbide (NM) series. Birdcanyon, Bluepoint, Cajon, Koehn, Maynard Lake, Pintura, Moapa and Toquop soils are in the Mohave Desert and are moist in some part of the soil moisture control section for less than 20 days cumulative between July and September. Yturbide soils have more than 15 percent rock fragments in the control section. Copia soils have hues of 2.5YR, 5YR and 7.5YR and chromas of 6 to 8. Artir, Boxjoe, Butterbredt, Kajoe, and University soils are inactive. Morongo and Yander soils do not have a description (OSD) and cannot be competed.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: The Brazito soils are on flood plains, alluvial fans, dunes, and low terraces of major streams. Slopes are generally less than 5 percent. The soil formed in sandy alluvium many feet thick derived from rhyolite, andesite, monzonite, granite, quartzite, basalt, sandstone and limestone. The climate is semiarid to arid continental. The mean annual air temperature is 58 to 70 degrees F; and the mean annual precipitation is 8 to 12 inches. Much of the precipitation falls during summer in heavy thunderstorms of short duration. Elevation ranges from 2,000 to 5,300 feet. The frost-free period is 220 to 280 days.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the competing Bluepoint, Vinton and Yturbide soils in addition to the Gila, Glendale and Harkey soils. The Gila, Glendale and Harkey soils have textures finer than loamy fine sand.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well to excessively well drained; surface runoff is slow; permeability is rapid.

USE AND VEGETATION: Used for irrigated cropland, livestock grazing and urban land. Irrigated crops are cotton, alfalfa, small grains, grain sorghums and vegetables. Present vegetation is very sparse and includes salt grass, arrowgrass and willows.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Southern New Mexico, Arizona and Texas. Brazito soils are of moderate extent. MLRA is 40, 41 and 42.


SERIES ESTABLISHED: Dona Ana County, New Mexico, Mesilla Valley; 1912.

REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:

Ochric epipedon - the zone from 0 to 5 inches (Ap horizon)

Entisol feature - the absence of diagnostic subsurface horizons

Classified according to Soil Taxonomy Second Edition, 1999; Keys to Soil Taxonomy, Twelfth Edition, 2014.

Revised for the correlation of AZ675, 5/2009, WWJ

Revised for the correlation of White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico; October, 2014, NMS

National Cooperative Soil Survey