LOCATION BROWNFIELD              TX+NM

Established Series
Rev. TCB-RM
10/2022

BROWNFIELD SERIES


The Brownfield series consists of very deep, well drained, moderately permeable soils derived from sandy eolian deposits from the Blackwater Draw Formation of Pleistocene age. Brownfield soils are on nearly level to gently sloping plains. Slope ranges from 0 to 5 percent. The mean annual precipitation is about 457 mm (18 in) and the mean annual air temperature is about 16 degrees C (61 degrees F).

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Loamy, mixed, superactive, thermic Arenic Aridic Paleustalfs

TYPICAL PEDON:Brownfield fine sand, on a northeast-facing, very gently sloping plain, 2 percent slope in rangeland at an elevation of about 1,138 m (3,735 ft). (Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise stated.)

A--0 to 15 cm (0 to 6 in); brown (7.5YR 5/4) fine sand, brown (7.5YR 4/4) moist; single grain; loose; many very fine and fine roots; neutral; gradual smooth boundary. (10 to 30 cm [4 to 12 in] thick)

E1--15 to 30 cm (6 to 12 in); light brown (7.5YR 6/4) fine sand, brown (7.5YR 5/4) moist; single grain; loose; many very fine and fine roots; neutral; gradual smooth boundary.

E2--30 to 54 cm (12 to 23 in); yellowish red (5YR 5/6) fine sand, yellowish red (5YR 4/6) moist; single grain; loose; common very fine and fine roots; neutral; gradual wavy boundary. (Combined E horizons are 38 to 76 cm [15 to 30 in] thick)

E/B--54 to 71 cm (23 to 28 in); yellowish red (5YR 5/6) fine sand, yellowish red (5YR 4/6) moist and red (2.5YR 4/6) sandy clay loam, dark red (2.5YR 3/6) moist; weak medium prismatic structure parting to moderate fine subangular blocky; slightly hard, firm; common fine and medium roots; common fine and medium tubular pores; neutral; clear wavy boundary. (0 to 25 cm [0 to 10 in] thick)

Bt1--71 to 114 cm (28 to 45 in); red (2.5YR 4/6) sandy clay loam, dark red (2.5YR 3/6) moist; moderate coarse prismatic structure parting to moderate medium subangular blocky; hard, firm; common very fine and fine roots; common very fine and fine tubular pores; common distinct clay films on faces of peds; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary. (25 to 51 cm [10 to 20 in] thick)

Bt2--114 to 140 cm (45 to 55 in); red (2.5YR 4/6) sandy clay loam, dark red (2.5YR 3/6) moist; moderate coarse prismatic structure parting to moderate medium subangular blocky; very hard, very firm; few fine and medium roots; few very fine and fine tubular pores; common distinct clay films on faces of peds; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary. (25 to 51 cm [10 to 20 in] thick)

Bt3--140 to 170 cm (55 to 67 in); red (2.5YR 4/6) sandy clay loam, dark red (2.5YR 3/6) moist; moderate coarse prismatic structure parting to moderate medium subangular blocky; very hard, very firm; common very fine and fine roots; common very fine and fine tubular pores; common distinct clay films on faces of peds; neutral; gradual wavy boundary. (25 to 51 cm [10 to 20 in] thick)

Bt4--170 to 203 (67 to 80 in); red (2.5YR 4/6) sandy clay loam, dark red (2.5YR 3/6) moist; moderate coarse prismatic structure parting to moderate medium subangular blocky; hard, firm; common fine and medium roots; common very fine and fine tubular pores; common distinct clay films on faces of peds; neutral; gradual wavy boundary. (25 to 51 cm [10 to 20 in] thick)

TYPE LOCATION:Yoakum County, Texas; from the intersection of U.S. Highway 380 and State Highway 214 in Plains, 8.5 miles north on State Highway 214, 2 miles east and northeast on ranch road, 0.5 mile north on ranch road in rangeland; Latitude: 33 degrees, 20 minutes, 10.36 seconds N; Longitude: 102 degrees, 47 minutes, 56.75 seconds W; Two B Ranch, Texas USGS quad; NAD 83.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS:
Soil moisture: An ustic moisture regime bordering on aridic. The soil moisture control section is dry in some or all parts for more than 180 but less than 220 days, cumulative, in normal years. July through August and December through February are the driest months. These soils are intermittently moist in September through November and March through June.
Mean annual soil temperature: 15 to 18 degrees C (59 to 64 degrees F).
Depth to argillic horizon: 51 to 102 cm (20 to 40 in).
Depth to calcic horizon: typically greater than 2 m (6.6 ft) but ranges from 150 to more than 203 cm (60 to 80 in).
Solum thickness: more than 203 cm (80 in).
Particle-size control section: 18 to 35 percent silicate clay.

A horizon:
Hue: 5YR or 7.5YR
Value: 5 or 6 dry, 4 or 5 moist
Chroma: 3 or 4
Texture: fine sand
Effervescence: none to very slight
Reaction: neutral or slightly alkaline

E horizon:
Hue: 5YR or 7.5YR
Value: 5 or 6 dry, 4 to 6 moist
Chroma: 4 or 5
Texture: fine sand, loamy fine sand
Effervescence: none to very slight
Reaction: neutral or slightly alkaline

Bt horizon:
Hue: 2.5YR to 7.5YR
Value: 4 to 6 dry, 3 to 5 moist
Chroma: 4 to 8
Texture: sandy clay loam
Effervescence: none or slight
Reaction: neutral or slightly alkaline

Btk horizon: (where present)
Hue: 2.5YR or 5YR
Value: 4 to 7 dry, 3 to 6 moist
Chroma: 4 to 8
Texture: sandy clay loam
Visible calcium carbonate: 3 to 10 percent in the form of films, threads, and nodules.
Effervescence: strong or violent
Reaction: slightly or moderately alkaline

COMPETING SERIES:There are no competing series in the same family. Similar soils include theAmarillo, Grandfield, Miles, Notrees, Patricia, Plains, Seagraves, Springer, Tokio, andYoakranseries.
Amarillo, Grandfield, Miles, andPatriciaseries: do not have a surface horizon with sandy particle-size class greater than 50 cm (20 in) thick.
Seagravesseries: is wetter in the moisture control section.
Springerseries: has less than 18 percent silicate clay in the particle-size control section.
NotreesandYoakranseries: have siliceous mineralogy.
Plains series: has siliceous minerology and a sandy particle-size class that is 100 to 150 cm (40 to 60 inches) thick overlying an argillic horizon. Tokioseries: has a fine-loamy particle-size class and a calcic horizon within 50 cm (20 inches).

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING:
Parent material: sandy eolian deposits from the Blackwater Draw Formation of Pleistocene age
Landform: nearly level to gently sloping plains.
Slopes: 0 to 3 percent but range to 5 percent.
Mean annual air temperature: 14 to 17 degrees C (57 to 63 degrees F).
Mean annual precipitation: 406 to 533 mm (16 to 21 in).
Precipitation pattern: Precipitation is mostly even throughout the year with the exception of November through March being the driest months and April through October being the wettest months.
Frost-free period: 185 to 220 days.
Elevation: 792 to 1,311 m (2,600 to 4,300 ft).
Thornthwaite annual P-E Index Values: 25 to 36.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS:These are the similarAmarillo, Nutivoli, Patricia, Plains, Spantara, Tokio, andYoakranseries and theArvana, Gomez, Midessa, Nutivoli, andPoseyseries.
Amarillo, Patricia, Plains, Spantara, Tokio, andYoakransoils: are on similar landscape positions.
Arvanasoils: are on similar landscape positions but have a petrocalcic horizon between 50 and 100 cm (20 and 40 in).
Gomezsoils: are on similar landscape positions and have less than 18 percent silicate clay in the particle size control section.
Midessasoils: are on similar landscape positions but have a calcic horizon at 50 to 100 cm (20 to 40 in).
Nutivolisoils: are on higher landscape positions, have less than 18 percent silicate clay in the particle-size control section, and do not have an argillic horizon.
Poseysoils: are on similar landscape positions but have a calcic horizon at 30 to 58 cm (12 to 23 in).

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY:Well drained and moderate permeability. Surface runoff is negligible on 0 to 1 percent slopes and low on 1 to 5 percent slopes.

USE AND VEGETATION:Mainly used for cropland but also used as native rangeland. Principal crops grown are cotton and grain sorghum. Climax vegetation is tall and mid grasses, with tall grasses tending to dominate. This site is dominated by little and sand bluestem along with taller dropseed species. The remainder is mid and short grasses such as sideoats grama, sand dropseed, hooded windmillgrass, sand lovegrass, sand paspalum, fall witchgrass, hairy grama, needle and thread, and perennial threeawn. Sand sage, shinoak, and skunkbush are also present.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT:Southern High Plains of western Texas and eastern New Mexico (sub-MLRA-77C). The series is extensive.

MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE:Temple, Texas

SERIES ESTABLISHED:Andrews County, Texas; 1941.

REMARKS:Series revised MLRA-77 Soil Survey; Type Location moved from Cochran to Yoakum County, Texas; 1997.

Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:

Ochric epipedon: 0 to 15 cm (0 to 6 in). (A horizon)
Argillic horizon: 71 to 203 cm (28 to 80 in). (Bt1, Bt2, Bt3, Bt4 horizons)
Arenic feature: 0 to 71 cm (0 to 28 in). (A, E1, E2, E/Bt horizons)
Pale feature: silicate clay content does not decrease by 20 percent from the maximum within 152 cm (60 in) of the mineral soil surface.

ADDITIONAL DATA:NSSL data available on mechanical analysis and mineralogy - Sample number: S85TX-501-001 & S81TX-501-001 (Yoakum Co. Texas), S81TX-079-001 (Cochran Co. Texas), S95TX-305-043 (Lynn Co. Texas), S90NM-009-009 (Curry Co. New Mexico).

Taxonomic Version: Keys to Soil Taxonomy, Twelfth Edition, 2014.



National Cooperative Soil Survey
U.S.A.