LOCATION BURNHAM ME+NH NY
The Burnham series consists of very deep, very poorly drained soils in depressions on glaciated uplands. These soils formed in dense glacial till. Slope ranges from 0 to 3 percent. Mean annual temperature is about 5 degrees C, and mean annual precipitation is about 1118 mm at the type location.
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Loamy, mixed, superactive, nonacid, frigid, shallow Histic Humaquepts
TYPICAL PEDON: Burnham muck, in a nearly level, very stony, forested area. (Colors are for moist soil.)
Oa1--0 to 10 cm; black (10YR 2/1) muck (sapric material); moderate very fine and fine granular structure; very friable; many very fine and fine, and few medium and coarse roots; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Oa2--10 to 33 cm; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) muck (sapric material); weak fine and medium granular structure; friable; common very fine, and few fine and medium roots; slightly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. (Combined thickness of the O horizon is 20 to 41 cm.)
Bg--33 to 46 cm; gray (N 5/0) channery silt loam; weak thick platy structure; firm; few very fine and fine roots; many coarse prominent olive (5Y 5/3) masses of iron accumulation; 10 percent channers, 5 percent cobbles; neutral; abrupt wavy boundary. (10 to 41 cm thick).
Cdg1--46 to 86 cm; olive gray (5Y 4/2) channery silt loam; weak thick platy structure; firm; many coarse faint dark gray (N 4/0) iron depletions and many medium prominent light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) masses of iron accumulation; 15 percent channers; neutral; gradual wavy boundary. (41 to 124 cm thick).
Cdg2--86 to 165 cm; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) channery silt loam; weak medium platy structure; firm; many medium faint gray (5Y 5/1) iron depletions and many medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) masses of iron accumulation; 20 percent channers; neutral.
TYPE LOCATION: Piscataquis County, Maine; Town of Sangerville; 0.8 mile east of South Sangerville Road on West Road and 50 feet on north side of road; USGS Sangerville topographic quadrangle; lat. 45 degrees 40 minutes 30 seconds N. and long. 69 degrees 55 minutes 35 seconds W., NAD 27.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Thickness of the solum ranges from 33 to 50 cm. Depth to bedrock is more than 152 cm. The weighted average of clay in the particle-size control section is 10 to 18 percent. Rock fragment content ranges from 5 to 35 percent throughout. Rock fragments are mainly channers and gravel with some cobbles and stones. Stones and boulders cover from 0 to 15 percent of the surface. Texture of the fine-earth fraction is silt loam or loam throughout the mineral soil. Reaction ranges from strongly acid to slightly alkaline throughout the soil except for the O and A horizons, where present, which range from extremely acid to slightly acid.
The O horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 2 or 3 and chroma of 1 or 2. It is muck or mucky peat. It has weak or moderate very fine to medium granular structure or it is massive.
The A horizon, where present, has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 3 or 4 and chroma of 2. It has granular structure or it is massive. Consistence is very friable or friable.
The Eg horizon, where present, is neutral or has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 3 to 6, and chroma of 0 to 2. It is massive or has platy, granular or prismatic structure. Moist consistence is friable or firm.
The Bg horizon is neutral or has hue of 5Y, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 0 to 2. It has platy, granular, subangular blocky or prismatic structure. Moist consistence is friable or firm.
The Cdg horizon is neutral or has hue of 2.5Y to 5GY, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 0 to 3. It has prismatic or platy structure, or it is massive. Moist consistence is firm or very firm.
COMPETING SERIES: This is the
Peacham series. Peacham soils have less than 10 percent clay in the particle-size control section.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Burnham soils are on glaciated uplands. Slope ranges from 0 to 3 percent. The soils formed in dense glacial till derived mainly from slate and other dark colored sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. The climate is humid and cool temperate. The mean annual temperature ranges from 3 to 7 degrees C, and mean annual precipitation ranges from 864 to 1168 mm. The frost-free season ranges from 80 to 130 days. Elevation ranges from 37 to 671 meters above mean sea level.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the
Wonsqueak soils. The Bangor, Chesuncook, Dixmont, Howland, Plaisted and Telos soils are better drained soils at higher elevations in the landscape. Elliottsville, Monson, Penquis, Thorndike and Winnecook soils are better drained, shallower to bedrock soils at higher elevations in the landscape. Monarda soils are in a similar position as the Burnham soils, but are better drained and do not have a histic epipedon. Wonsqueak soils are in depressions and large concave areas and have thicker accumulations of organic matter.
DRAINAGE AND SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY: Very poorly drained. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is moderately high to high in the organic surface, moderately high in the solum, and moderately low or low in the substratum.
USE AND VEGETATION: Forest. Common tree species include balsam fir, eastern white pine, eastern hemlock, northern white cedar, black spruce, red spruce, black ash, tamarack, and red maple. Forest ground cover is mainly sphagnum moss, cinnamon fern, interrupted fern and sensitive fern.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Maine. (MLRAs 143, 144B and 146) The series is of large extent.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Amherst, Massachusetts
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Waldo County, Maine, 1940.
REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon include:
1. Histic epipedon - the zone from 0 to 33 cm (Oa horizons).
2. Frigid temperature regime.
3. Aquic conditions - redox features at the mineral soil surface and throughout the profile.
ADDITIONAL DATA: Source of data used in establishing the taxonomic classification and range of characteristics is Maine Agricultural Experiment Station, Technical Bulletin 137, 1990.
Soil Interpretation Record Numbers for the Burnham series are: Burnham, ME0038; and Burnham, stony, ME0057.
National Cooperative Soil Survey