Established Series


The Camillus series consists of moderately deep, well drained soils formed in till and an underlying weathered calcareous shale bedrock. Slopes range from 0 through 25 percent. The mean annual temperature is 45 degrees F. and the mean annual precipitation is 35 inches.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Eutrudepts

TYPICAL PEDON: Camillus silt loam - cultivated (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.)

Ap -- 0 to 10 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt loam; brown (10YR 4/3) when rubbed, light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) dry; weak medium and fine subangular blocky structure breaking to moderate medium and fine granular structure; friable, slightly sticky; many fine and medium roots; many medium and large pores; 1 percent rock fragments; neutral; abrupt wavy boundary. (7 to 11 inches thick.)

Bw -- 10 to 16 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt loam; moderate medium and coarse subangular blocky structure breaking to weak fine and medium granular structure; friable, slightly sticky; many fine roots; many medium and large pores; 1 percent rock fragments; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary. (1 to 19 inches thick.)

BC -- 16 to 22 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) in the upper part grading to grayish brown (10YR 5/2) in the lower part (inherited from parent material), silt loam; very weak very coarse platy structure breaking to fine and medium angular and subangular blocky structure; friable, slightly sticky; many fine roots; many medium and large pores; few partially weathered fine shale fragments; neutral; clear wavy boundary. (3 to 8 inches thick.)

C -- 22 to 36 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) silt loam; platy structure inherited from rock breaks to weak medium and coarse angular blocky structure; friable, slightly sticky; many fine roots to 24 inches, common fine roots from 24 to 36 inches; many large pores; 25 percent soft shale fragments; 1 percent hard rock fragments; slightly alkaline. (6 to 18 inches thick.)

2Cr -- 36 to 39 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) soft partially disintegrated calcareous silty shale bedrock.

2R -- 39 to 42+ inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) soft calcareous silty shale bedrock.

TYPE LOCATION: Cayuga County, New York; 200 feet north of Brutus Road, 400 feet east of Pump Road. USGS Weedsport, NY topographic quadrangle; Latitude 43 degrees, 3 minutes, 6 seconds N. and Longitude 76 degrees, 30 minutes, 2 seconds W., NAD 1927.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Solum thickness ranges from 18 through 30 inches. Depth to soft shale bedrock ranges from 20 to 40 inches. Fine, partially weathered shale fragments are common in the lower part of the B horizon and the C horizon. Hard rock fragments range from 0 to 15 percent. The fine-earth fraction contains between 15 through 25 percent coarser than very fine sand, and also has 18 through 24 percent clay.

The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 2 or 3. Texture of the fine-earth fraction is dominantly silt loam, but is loam or very fine sandy loam in some pedons. Structure ranges from weak coarse blocky through moderate fine granular.

The Bw horizon has hue of 10YR through 2.5Y. In some pedons, redoximorphic concentrations occur below depths of 16 inches. Structure is dominantly moderate, medium or coarse, subangular blocky. Consistence is friable or very friable. Reaction ranges from moderately acid through neutral.

Some pedons have a BC horizon, with properties similar to those of the Bw and C horizons.

The C horizon has hue of 7.5YR through 5Y, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 2 through 4. Reaction is neutral or slightly alkaline.

The Cr horizon contains soft calcareous shale in various stages of weathering and extends to depths of up to 8 feet, and has colors similar to those of the C horizon. Below that depth the bedrock grades into hard unweathered shale.

COMPETING SERIES: The Gardenisle and Hennepin series were in the same family. Gardenisle soils have more than 20 percent rock fragment content in the substratum and are underlain by argillite and limestone bedrock. Hennepin soils do not have a paralithic or lithic contact within 40 inches.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Camillus soils are commonly on short gently undulating slopes of 2 through 8 percent on till plains, but some are on slopes as much as 25 percent. The soil formed mainly in material weathered from the underlying shale and in part in till. The climate is humid and cool temperate. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 30 through 40 inches, mean annual temperature from 46 degrees through 50 degrees F. The mean annual frost-free period ranges from 140 through 180 days.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: Common associates are Honeoye, Ontario, and Lairdsville soils, all of which have argillic horizons. Also, the Palatine soils that have more than 35 percent coarse fragments and the shallow to bedrock Benson soils.

DRAINAGE AND SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY: Well drained. The potential for surface runoff is typically very low to high. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is moderately high or high in the mineral soil. A perched water table may be present for less than one month.

USE AND VEGETATION: Where cultivated the soil is used for growing corn, small grains, hay or pasture and some horticultural specialties. Much of this soil occurs in urban areas. Native trees are sugar maple, beech, basswood, and some butternut and tulip poplar.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Central New York. MLRA's 101 and 144A. The soil is of moderate extent.


SERIES ESTABLISHED: Onondaga County, New York, 1934.

REMARKS: This series is well drained and Typic, not Oxyaquic. The chroma 2 colors are inherited from the bedrock material.

Diagnostic horizon and other features recognized in the typical pedon are:
1) Ochric epipedon - from 0 to 10 inches.
2) Cambic horizon - from 10 to approximately 19 inches (Bw and the upper part of the BC horizons).

National Cooperative Soil Survey