LOCATION CHARD WA+ID OREstablished Series
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Coarse-loamy, mixed, superactive, mesic Calcic Haploxerolls
TYPICAL PEDON: Chard silt loam - cultivated. (Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise stated.)
Ap--0 to 5 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt loam, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) moist; weak fine and medium granular structure; soft, very friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; many roots; slightly alkaline (pH 7.8); abrupt smooth boundary. (3 to 6 inches thick)
A--5 to 12 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) silt loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; weak medium and coarse granular structure; soft, very friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; common roots; slightly alkaline (pH 7.8); clear wavy boundary. (5 to 12 inches thick)
Bw1--12 to 27 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) very fine sandy loam, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; weak medium prismatic structure parting to weak medium subangular blocks; soft, very friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; common roots; many very fine tubular pores; moderately alkaline (pH 8.0); clear wavy boundary. (10 to 16 inches thick)
Bw2--27 to 37 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) sandy loam, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; massive, soft, very friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; few roots; many very fine tubular pores; moderately alkaline (pH 8.2); clear wavy boundary. (0 to 12 inches thick)
2Bk--37 to 44 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) and light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) coarse sandy loam, brown (10YR 4/3) and dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist; massive; slightly hard, friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; few roots; strongly effervescent; strongly alkaline (pH 8.6). (5 to 38 inches thick)
3C--44 to 60 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) coarse basaltic sand; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; single grain; loose; strongly effervescent; strongly alkaline (pH 8.8).
TYPE LOCATION: Adams County, Washington; 1,500 feet east, and 540 feet north of southwest corner sec. 30, T. 15 N., R. 37 E.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: The mean annual soil temperature at a depth of 20 inches is 49 to 55 degrees F. These soils are usually moist, but are dry in all parts between depths of 8 and 24 inches for 90 to 105 days. Depth to secondary carbonates ranges from 20 to 44 inches. The mollic epipedon is 10 to 18 inches thick. The upper part of the particle- size control section is silt loam or very fine sandy loam grading to sandy loam or fine sandy loam in the lower part, and contains less than 5 percent coarse fragments. Depth to the 3C horizon is more than 40 inches.
The A horizon has value of 4 or 5 dry, 2 or 3 moist, and chroma of 2 or 3 when dry. Texture is silt loam, loam, or very fine sandy loam. It has weak structure or is massive. Soil reaction is neutral or slightly alkaline.
The Bw horizon has value of 4 or 5 dry, 3 or 4 moist and chroma of 2 or 3 dry or moist. Texture is silt loam, loam, very fine sandy loam, or sandy loam. It has weak prismatic or blocky structure. Soil reaction is neutral to moderately alkaline.
The 2Bw & 2Bk horizons have value of 4 through 7 dry, 3 through 5 moist, and chroma of 2 or 3 dry or moist. Texture is fine sandy loam, sandy loam, loam, very fine sandy loam or coarse sandy loam. They are massive or single grained. The lower part of these horizons have accumulation of secondary lime. Calcium carbonate equivalent is 1 to 12 percent. Soil reaction is moderately alkaline or strongly alkaline.
The 3C horizon, when present, is coarse sand, sand, loamy fine sand or fine sandy and contains lenses of fine gravel in some pedons.
COMPETING SERIES: These are the Asotin, Bolicker, Disautel, Dufur, and Kidman, series. Asotin soils have a lithic contact at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Bolicker soils have 5 to 35 percent rock fragments in the particle- size control section. Disautel soils have 20 to 50 percent rock fragments in the lower part of the particle-size control section. Dufur soils are 30 to 50 inches to secondary lime and are medium textured throughout the particle-size control section. Kidman soils are are dry for 60 to 70 consecutive days and lack a discontinuity to sands.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Chard soils are on lacustrine or outwash terraces and terrace escarpments at elevations of 600 to 2,000 feet. Slopes are 0 to 65 percent. These soils formed from a mixture of loess and glaciofluvial or lacustrine material. The summers are hot and dry and the winters are cool and moist. Average annual precipitation is 12 to 16 inches. Mean annual temperature is 47 to 53 degrees F. The frost- free season is 135 to 190 days.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Alpowa, Anders, Bagdad, Benge, Lickskillet, Nansene, Nims, Oliphant, Spofford, and Walla Walla soils and the competing Asotin and Bolicker soils. Alpowa soils are loamy-skeletal. Anders, Lickskillet, and Nims soils have a lithic contact at a depth of less than 40 inches. Bagdad, Nansene, Oliphant, and Walla Walla soils are coarse-silty. Benge soils are coarse-loamy over sandy or sandy-skeletal. Spofford soils have natric horizons.
DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained; medium to rapid runoff; moderate permeability.
USE AND VEGETATION: Chard soils are used for irrigated and dry cropland. Some is used for range, recreation, wildlife habitat, and watershed protection. Common irrigated crops are small grains, hay, pasture, and orchards. Winter wheat in a summer fallow system is grown dryland. Native vegetation is mainly bluebunch wheatgrass, Idaho fescue, Sandberg bluegrass, lupine, big sagebrush, and rabbitbrush.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Southeastern Washington, northwestern Idaho, and northeastern Oregon; MLRA 9. Series is of moderate extent.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Portland, Oregon
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Adams County, Washington, 1970.
REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
Mollic epipedon - from the surface to 12 inche
Cambic horizon - from 12 to 37 inches
Secondary carbonate accumulation - from 37 to 44 inches