LOCATION CROSS              AZ
Established Series


The Cross series consists of shallow, well-drained soils that formed from basalt and pyroclastics. Cross soils are on plateaus and mesas and have slopes of 1 to 15 percent. The mean annual precipitation is about 14 inches and the mean annual temperature is about 52 degrees F.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Clayey, smectitic, mesic Aridic Lithic Argiustolls

TYPICAL PEDON: Cross gravelly clay loam, grassland. (Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.)

A--0 to 3 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) gravelly clay loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; strong fine granular structure; slightly hard, friable, sticky and plastic; many very fine and fine roots; many fine interstitial pores; 25 percent pebbles; moderately alkaline (pH 8.0); abrupt smooth boundary. (2 to 4 inches thick.)

Bt--3 to 14 inches; brown (7.5YR 4/2) clay, dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) moist; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; very hard, firm, sticky and plastic; many very fine and fine roots; many very fine tubular pores; many moderately thick clay films on faces of peds; 10 percent pebbles; moderately alkaline (pH 8.0); clear wavy boundary. (8 to 12 inches thick.)

Bk--14 to 19 inches; white (N8/), pinkish white (7.5YR 8/2) moist; cobbly clay loam, massive; very hard, friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; common very fine roots; violently effervescent; 50 percent hard pebbles; moderately alkaline (pH 8.0); gradual wavy boundary. (2 to 8 inches thick.)

2R--19 to 20 inches; fractured basalt; common carbonates in joints.

TYPE LOCATION: Yavapai County, Arizona. 2/10 mile north and 3/10 mile east of SW corner of sec. 34, T. 23 N., R. 5 W.


Depth to bedrock: 8 - 20 inches

Soil Moisture: Intermittently moist in some parts of July-
September and December-February. Aridic ustic moisture regime.

Air temperature: 50 - 53 degrees F.

Rock fragments: 5-35 percent pebbles, cobbles

A horizon:
Hue: 10YR dry; 7.5YR moist
Value: 3 to 5 dry or moist
Chroma: 2 or 3 dry; 2 moist
Texture: gravelly clay loam, clay loam (30-35 percent clay)
Reaction: slightly to moderately alkaline

Bt horizon
Hue: 10YR dry; 5YR or 7.5YR moist
Value: 2 to 5 dry; 3 to 5 moist
Chroma: 2 or 3 dry or moist
Texture: clay loam or clay (35-55 percent clay)
Reaction: Slightly to moderately alkaline

Bk horizon
Hue: 7.5YR
Value: 8 dry; 7 or 8 moist
Chroma: 2 dry or moist
Texture: cobbly clay loam (35-40 percent clay)
Reaction: Slightly to moderately alkaline
Carbonates: 15 percent

COMPETING SERIES: These are the Cabezon (NM), and Luzena (AZ) series. The Cabezon and Luzena soils lack a horizon of lime accumulation.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: The Cross soils are at elevations of 4,500 to 6,500 feet on plateaus and mesas. They formed from basalt and pyroclastics. Slopes range from 1 to 15 percent. The climate is semiarid with an average annual precipitation ranging from 12 to 14 inches occurring as summer thunderstorms and as rain and snow in winter, a mean annual temperature of 50o to 54 degrees F., an average January temperature of 35 degrees F., and an average July temperature of 73 degrees F. The frost-free season ranges from 130 to 170 days.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Apache, Ashfork, Aut, Cabezon, Springerville, Thunderbird and Ziegler soils. Apache soils do not have an argillic horizon. Ashfork, Aut and Thunderbird soils have a lithic contact at 20 to 40 inches. Cabezon soils do not have a horizon of carbonate accumulation. Springerville soils crack when dry and are deep. Ziegler soils are moderately deep.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained; slow to medium runoff; slow permeability.

USE AND VEGETATION: Used for grazing. Native vegetation consists of blue grama, tobosa, winterfat, cacti, and annuals.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: North central Yavapai County and south central Coconino County, Arizona. Cross soils are moderately extensive. MLRAs 35, 36, & 39.


SERIES ESTABLISHED: Yavapai County, Arizona, Western Part, 1971.

REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:

Mollic epipedon - The zone from 0 to 14 inches (A, Bt horizons)

Argillic horizon - The zone from 3 to 14 inches (Bt horizon)

Lithic contact - The boundary at 19 inches (2R horizon)

The classification was changed to an Aridic Lithic subgroup in 2006.

Classified according to Keys to Soil Taxonomy Ninth Edition, 2003.

National Cooperative Soil Survey