LOCATION FANNIN NC+GA SC TN VA
AG; Rev. BPS
The Fannin series consists of very deep, well drained soils on gently sloping to very steep ridges and side slopes of the Southern Blue Ridge (MLRA 130B). They formed in residuum that is affected by soil creep in the upper part, and is weathered from high-grade metamorphic rocks that are high in mica content such as mica schist and mica gneiss. Mean annual temperature is 52 degrees F., and mean annual rainfall is about 52 inches near the type location. Slopes are 6 to 95 percent.
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-loamy, micaceous, mesic Typic Hapludults
TYPICAL PEDON: Fannin loam--forested. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)
Oe--0 to 1 inch; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) moderately decomposed organic material containing some mineral soil; strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
A--1 to 4 inches; brown (7.5YR 5/2) loam; weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine and medium roots; common flakes of mica; few quartz gravel; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. (2 to 8 inches thick)
E--4 to 8 inches; brown (7.5YR 5/4) loam; weak fine and medium granular structure; very friable; many fine and medium roots; common flakes of mica; few quartz gravel; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. (0 to 6 inches thick)
Bt1--8 to 14 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/6) clay loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; slightly sticky and slightly plastic; few medium and fine roots; common flakes of mica; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
Bt2--14 to 26 inches; red (2.5YR 4/6) clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; sticky; slightly plastic; common distinct clay films on faces of peds; many fine and medium flakes of mica give greasy feel; some are soft and easily crushed by rubbing; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. (Combined thickness of the Bt horizon is 10 to 30 inches.)
BC--26 to 33 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/8) loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few distinct clay films on faces of peds; many fine and medium flakes of mica most of which are soft; common small fragments of saprolite; strongly acid; gradual irregular boundary. (2 to 15 inches thick)
C--33 to 61 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/8) mica schist saprolite that has a texture of loam; few distinct reddish clay films on cleavage planes; friable; strongly acid.
TYPE LOCATION: Alleghany County, North Carolina; one mile west of Edwards' Crossroads, 0.2 mile south of Zion Church, in cut over hardwood area 100 feet east of county road.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Solum thickness ranges from 20 to 45 inches. Depth to lithic or paralithic contact is more than 60 inches. Content of coarse fragments range from 0 to 35 percent in the A and C horizons and from 0 to 25 percent in the B horizons. Fragments are dominantly gravel in most pedons but cobbles are dominant in some pedons. Reaction is very strongly acid to slightly acid. Content of flakes of mica is common or many in the surface layer and upper B horizon and is many in the lower B and C horizons.
The A or Ap horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and chroma of 2 to 4. Where value is 3 or less, this horizon is less than 7 inches thick.
The E or AB horizon, where present, has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. It has the same texture as the A horizon in slightly eroded pedons.
The BA or BE horizon, where present, has hue of 5YR or 7.5YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 4 to 6. It is loam, fine sandy loam or silt loam in the fine-earth fraction.
The Bt horizon has hue of 2.5YR or 5YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 4 to 8. Mottles, if they occur, are in shades of red, yellow, or brown. The Bt horizon is loam, silty clay loam, clay loam, or sandy clay loam in the fine-earth fraction.
The BC horizon is similar in color to the Bt horizon. It is loam, fine sandy loam, sandy loam, or sandy clay loam in the fine-earth fraction.
The C horizon is similar in color to the BC horizon or is multicolored. It is saprolite weathered from high-grade metamorphic rocks having a high content of mica such as mica gneiss and mica schist. It has a texture of loam, sandy loam, fine sandy loam, loamy sand, or loamy fine sand in the fine-earth fraction.
COMPETING SERIES: The series is the only other series in this family. The
Watauga series. Watauga soils have Bt horizons of 7.5YR or yellower hues. Brownwood, Cashiers, Chandler, and Micaville soils do not have an argillic horizon. Lauada and Brownwood are moderately deep and Micaville is deep to a paralithic contact.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Fannin soils are gently sloping to very steep and are on ridges and side slopes in the Blue Ridge (MLRA 130). They formed in residuum that is affected by soil creep in the upper part, and is weathered from high-grade metamorphic rocks having a high content of mica such as mica gneiss and mica schist. . Slopes range from 6 to 95 percent. Elevation ranges from about 1,400 to 3,500 feet. Mean annual air temperature ranges from 46 to 57 degrees F., and mean annual rainfall ranges from 45 to 65 inches.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: In addition to the competing
Watauga series, these are
Tusquitee series. Brevard, Saunook, Tate, Thunder, and Tusquitee formed in colluvium, have less mica, and are in coves. Brownwood, Cashiers, Chandler, Chestnut, Clifton, Cowee, Edneyville, Evard, Lauada, Micaville, and Watauga soils are on ridges and side slopes. In addition, the moderately deep Chestnut and the very deep Edneyville soils contain less mica and have a cambic horizon. The moderately deep Cowee and very deep Evard soils contain less mica. Clifton and Hayesville soils are in a fine particle-size class.
DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained. Runoff is slow under forest cover and is medium to rapid in areas where the forest cover is removed. Medium internal drainage; moderate permeability.
USE AND VEGETATION: Most areas are in forest. Common trees are chestnut oak, scarlet oak, black oak, white oak, hickory, eastern white pine, Virginia pine, and pitch pine. Yellow poplar and northern red oak are common in the northern portions of MLRA 130B. The understory includes flowering dogwood, American chestnut sprouts, flame azalea, blueberry, buffalo nut, mountain laurel, rhododendron, and sourwood. Cleared areas are principally used for pasture and hayland. Small areas are used for growing corn, small grain, truck crops, apples, and Christmas trees.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Southern Blue Ridge (MLRA 130B) of North Carolina, Georgia, South Carolina, and Virginia. The series is of moderate extent.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Morgantown, West Virginia
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Fannin County, Georgia; 1923.
REMARKS: Fannin series was formerly classified in the Red-Yellow Podzolic great soil group. Available data show that the Fannin soils have average clay content of less than 35 percent in the Bt horizons, average silt content of 20 to 50 percent in the upper 20 inches of the Bt horizons, and much mica throughout the sola. These soils feel as if they are higher in silt than mechanical analyses shows them to be. They have a greasy feel caused by the high mica content. The mica is dominantly soft and mineral structure is destroyed by prolonged rubbing.
Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
Ochric epipedon - the zone from the surface to 8 inches (Oe, A, and E horizons)
Argillic horizon - the zone from 8 to 33 inches (Bt1, Bt2, and BC horizons)
High content of flakes of mica in the Bt2, BC, and C horizons
SIR = NC0020, NC0278 (Eroded) MLRA = 130
01-2011 update: Classification, competing and associated series, MLRA clarification
National Cooperative Soil Survey