LOCATION FIALE              CA
Established Series
ARW/MB/KP
02/2007

FIALE SERIES


The Fiale series consists of moderately deep, moderately well drained soils that formed in materials derived from basalt, andesite and breccia. Fiale soils are on hills of islands. Slopes range from 2 to 60 percent. The mean annual precipitation is about 18 inches (457 millimeters) and the mean annual temperature is about 63 degrees F. (17 degrees C.)

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine, smectitic, thermic Aridic Haploxererts

TYPICAL PEDON: Fiale clay loam on a hill side under a cover of annual grass at an elevation of 700 feet (213 meters) on Santa Cruz Island. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted). The soil surface has 3 percent gravel, 5 percent cobbles and 1 percent stones. Surface cracks are 1 to 5 centimeters wide and 25 to 61 centimeters apart in a polygonal pattern.

Oi--0 to 2 inches, (0 to 5 cm); slightly decomposed grasses, abrupt smooth boundary. (0 to 4 inches thick (0 to 10 centimeters))

A--2 to 4 inches, (5 to 11 cm); dark gray (10YR 4/1) clay loam, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) moist; 38 percent clay; strong medium subangular blocky structure; moderately hard, friable, moderately sticky, very plastic; many fine roots and many very fine roots; 5 percent 5 to 75 millimeter gravel and 5 percent 2 to 5 millimeter gravel; slightly alkaline, pH 7.6 by Phenol red; clear smooth boundary. (0 to 10 inches thick (0 to 25 centimeters))

Bss1--4 to 15 inches, (11 to 38 cm); very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) clay, very dark brown (10YR2/2) moist; 55 percent clay; strong coarse prismatic and strong medium prismatic structure; very hard, firm, very sticky, very plastic; common slickensides; common fine roots and common very fine roots; 3 percent 2 to 75 millimeter gravels; neutral, pH 7.2 by Phenol red; gradual wavy boundary.

Bss2--15 to 24 inches, (38 to 60 cm); dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) clay, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; 55 percent clay; strong medium prismatic and strong coarse prismatic structure; very hard, firm, very sticky, very plastic; common slickensides; few very fine roots; 10 percent redoximorphic accumulations of iron that are dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/6), dry, and dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/6), moist; 3 percent 2 to 75 millimeter gravels; neutral, pH 7.0 by Phenol red; gradual wavy boundary.

Bss3--24 to 28 inches, (60 to 72 cm); very dark gray (10YR 3/1) clay, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) moist;50 percent clay; strong medium prismatic and strong coarse prismatic structure; very hard, firm, very sticky, very plastic; common slickensides; few very fine roots; 45 percent redoximorphic accumulations of iron that are dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4), dry, and 45 percent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6), moist; 3 percent 2 to 75 millimeter gravel; neutral, pH 6.8 by Phenol red; gradual wavy boundary. (Combined thickness of Bss horizons is 10 to 30 inches (25 to 75 centimeters))

BC--28 to 34 inches, (72 to 87 cm); dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/6) and olive brown (2.5Y 4/3) sandy clay loam, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) and very dark grayish brown (2.5Y 3/2) moist; 22 percent clay; moderately hard, firm, moderately sticky, moderately plastic; few very fine roots; 3 percent 2 to 75 millimeter gravel; slightly alkaline, pH 7.8 by Phenol red; gradual wavy boundary. (0 to 10 inches thick (0 to 25 centimeters))

Cr1--34 to 48 inches, (87 to 123 cm); soft, easily diggable andesite. (4 to 20 inches thick (10 to 50 centimeters))

Cr2--48 inches, (123 to cm); hard andesite, fractures 2 to 3 cm apart.

TYPE LOCATION: Santa Barbara County, northeast of Centinella road on Santa Cruz Island, CA, 34 degrees North latitude, 1 minutes, 21 seconds and 119 degrees, 48 minutes, 3 seconds West longitude, NAD83. - U.S.G.S Quad: Santa Cruz Island.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS:

The mean annual soil temperature is 59 to 64 degrees F. (15 to 18 degrees C. The soil moisture control section is dry in all parts from about mid-August to mid-November (about 90 days).

Depth to bedrock is 20 to 35 inches (50 to 90 centimeters).

The particle size control section averages 40 to 60 percent clay, and 5 to 15 percent rock fragments.

Surface-initiated reversible cracks 1 to 5 centimeters wide extend to a depth of 17 to 40 inches (44 to 100 centimeters) from 180 or more consecutive days when the soil is not irrigated.

Slickensides range from common to many in the Bss horizons from 2 to 40 inches (5 to 100 centimeters). Thickness of Bss horizon is highly variable due to disturbance by erosion and animals, mostly wild pigs.
Reaction is neutral to moderately alkaline.

The A horizon dry color is 10YR 5/2, 5/3, 4/1, 4/2, 4/3, 3/1 or 3/2. Moist color is 10YR 4/2, 3/2, 3/1, 2/1, or 2/2.

The Bss horizon dry color is 10YR 5/2, 5/3, 4/1, 4/2, 3/2 or 3/1. Moist color is 10YR 3/3, 3/2, 3/1, 2/1, or 2/2.
Clay content averages from 40 to 60 percent.
Rock fragments range from 3 to 15 percent.

The BC horizon dry color is 2.5Y or 10YR 5/3, 4/4, or 4/3. Moist color is 4/3, 4/2, 3/3 or 3/2. The BC horizon does not occur in some pedons.

TYPE LOCATION: Santa Cruz Island, Santa Barbara County, CA, in the Channel Islands Soil Survey Area at 34 degrees, 01 minutes, 21 seconds North latitude and 119 degrees, 48 minutes, 3 seconds West longitude, NAD83; U.S.G.S Quad: Santa Cruz Island.

COMPETING SERIES: There are the Aido, Alo, Altamont, Auld, Bosanko, Cibo, Cropley, Diablo, Myers, Porterville, Sehorn, and Vaquero soils. Aido soils are moderately alkaline and always have Bssk horizons with disseminated and segregated carbonates, lack chromas of 1 in the profile, and have none to a few weak slickensides. Alo and Bosanko soils are slightly to moderately alkaline and always have Bk horizons with disseminated and segregated carbonates, lack chromas of 1 in the profile. Altamont, Auld, and Diablo soils have a paralithic contact at a depth greater than 40 inches and calcareous horizons with disseminated and segregated carbonates. Auld soils also have 5YR hues. Cibo and Sehorn soils are slightly acid to moderately alkaline and have a lithic contact at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Cropley and Porterville soils are deeper than 60 inches to bedrock and have calcareous horizons with disseminated and segregated carbonates. Myers soils are deeper than 60 inches to bedrock and lack a lithic contact or paralithic materials. Vaquero soils are neutral to strongly alkaline and have calcareous horizons with disseminated and segregated carbonates.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Fiale soils are on crests and side slopes of hills on Islands. Slopes range from 2 to 60 percent. The soils formed in residuum from basalt, andesite and breccia. Elevations are 50 to 1300 feet (15 to 396 meters). The climate is characterized by warm, dry summers and cool, moist winters with fog common all year. The mean annual precipitation is 13 to 24 inches (330 to 660 mm), the mean annual temperature is 61 to 73 degrees F. (16 to 23 degrees C.), and the frost free season is 320 to 365 days.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Halyard, Spinnaker, Tongva, and Topdeck soils. All these soils lack cracks that open and close and lack slickensides. These soils are on hills and mountains.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained; high runoff; slow permeability.

USE AND VEGETATION: Wildlife habitat, recreation and building site development. Vegetation is mostly grasses usually dominated by wild oats.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Santa Barbara County, California on Santa Cruz Island and Santa Rosa Island. The soil is not extensive. MLRA 20.

MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Davis, California.

SERIES ESTABLISHED: Santa Barbara County, California, on Santa Cruz Island, 2004.

REMARKS: The series name is a historical local ranch employee. Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon:

Ochric epipedon--The zone from the soil surface to a depth of about 4 inches.

Paralithic material--The zone from a depth of 34 inches to about 48 inches.


National Cooperative Soil Survey
U.S.A.