Established Series


The Haverhill series consists of moderately deep, very poorly drained soils formed in shale residuum with limestone fragments over shale. These soils are on foot slopes, side slopes of low ridges and benches within uplands. They have slow permeability in solum and very slow permeability in the underlying material. Slopes range from 1 to 12 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 30 inches, and mean annual temperature is about 49 degrees F.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine, illitic, calcareous, mesic Typic Epiaquolls

TYPICAL PEDON: Haverhill clay with a 3 percent west-facing foot slope in dissected uplands in a pasture field. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)

A--0 to 8 inches; black (N 2/0) clay, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) dry; moderate fine granular and weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; slight effervescence; mildly alkaline; abrupt wavy boundary. (7 to 12 inches thick)

AB--8 to 13 inches; very dark gray (5Y 3/1) clay, dark gray (5Y 4/1) dry; black (N 2/0) coatings on faces of peds; strong fine granular structure; firm; few fine inclusions of black (N 2/0); slight effervescence; mildly alkaline; clear irregular boundary. (0 to 8 inches thick)

Bg1--13 to 15 inches; very dark gray (5Y 3/1) clay; many medium faint brown (7.5YR 4/2) and few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; strong fine subangular blocky structure; sticky; common fine inclusions of black (N 2/0); about 5 percent limestone fragments; slight effervescence; mildly alkaline; abrupt wavy boundary. (0 to 6 inches thick)

Bg2--15 to 21 inches; dark olive gray (5Y 3/2) channery clay; very dark gray (5Y 3/1) coatings on faces of peds; many fine and medium prominent gray (5Y 6/1) mottles; moderate coarse subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky; about 20 percent limestone pebbles and fragments; strong effervescence; mildly alkaline; abrupt wavy boundary. (2 to 8 inches thick)

BCg--21 to 32 inches; greenish gray (5G 6/1) clay; many medium prominent light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) mottles; massive; firm; about 15 percent limestone pebbles and fragments; mildly alkaline; strong effervescence; gradual irregular boundary. (0 to 16 inches thick)

Cr--32 to 60 inches; greenish gray (5G 6/1) shale; slight effervescence in parts; mildly alkaline.

TYPE LOCATION: Olmsted County, Minnesota; about 5 miles southeast of Rochester; 1975 feet north and 2640 feet west of the southeast corner of sec. 27, T. 106 N., R. 13 W.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Thickness of solum ranges from 20 to 35 inches. Free carbonates typically are in all parts of the solum and the calcium carbonate equivalent of the fine earth fraction ranges from 2 to 8 percent. A few pedons lack free carbonates in the upper few inches. The content of coarse fragments ranges from 0 to 10 percent in the A horizon and 0 to 35 percent in the B horizon. The fragments are gravelly, channery, or flaggy limestone. These soils are saturated most of the time because of seepage, even through extended dry periods. Some pedons have an 0 horizon as much as 6 inches in thickness.

The A horizon has hue of 10YR through 5Y, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or is N 2/0 or N 3/0. It typically is silty clay loam, silty clay, or clay but includes mucky silty clay loam. It has subhorizons of sandy loam, silt loam, or loam in a few pedons. It typically is mildly alkaline, but it is neutral in the upper part in a few pedons.

The Bg horizon has hue of 5Y through 5G, value of 3 through 6, and chroma of 1 or 2. It has few through many mottles. It typically has a fine-earth fraction of clay or silty clay, but it has coarser textured subhorizons in a few pedons.

The Cr horizon has hue of 5Y through 5G, value of 5 or 6 and chroma of 1 or is N 5/0 or N 6/0. It is clay or silty clay. It has thin strata of limestone below depths of 60 inches in a few pedons.

COMPETING SERIES: No other series are in this family. The Calamine series is closely related, and it formed in a 15- to 30-inch mantle of loess and underlying shale and has an argillic horizon.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: These soils typically have plane or concave slopes, but a few have slightly convex slopes. Their gradient ranges from 1 to 12 percent. They primarily are on foot slopes and side slopes of low ridges and benches in dissected uplands. They formed primarily in shale residuum and they commonly have a significant amount of limestone fragments. This material overlies shale bedrock. Mean annual temperature ranges from 45 to 5l degrees F, and mean annual precipitation ranges from 27 to 35 inches.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Brodale, Lacrescent, Shullsburg, and Sogn soils. Brodale and Lacrescent soils formed mostly in loamy skeletal colluvium from limestone and are typically on steeper areas downslope or upslope from Haverhill soils. Shullsburg soils formed mostly from shale and are not as wet as Haverhill soils. Sogn soils which are underlain by limestone at shallower depths are mostly upslope.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Very poorly drained. Runoff is slow or medium. Permeability is slow in the solum and very slow in the Cr horizon.

USE AND VEGETATION: Haverhill soils are typically used for growing pasture. Many areas are in native vegetation which consists of water-tolerant grasses, sedges, cattails, and small shrubs such as dogwood and willow.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Southeastern Minnesota and possibly southwestern Wisconsin; the series is of small extent.


SERIES ESTABLISHED: Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1978.

REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized are: mollic epipedon - the zone from the surface to a depth of about 21 inches (A, AB, Bg1, and Bg2 horizons); cambic horizon - the zone from 13 to about 32 inches (Bg1, Bg2, and BCg horizon); aquic moisture regime based upon low chroma below the mollic epipedon and mottles within the mollic epipedon.

Classification only was changed 5/94. Competing series and other updates will be made later. 2/14/2011-TYPE LOCATION error was corrected.

ADDITIONAL DATA: Refer to Mn. Agr. Exp. Sta. Central File Code No. 1953 for results of some laboratory analyses of the typical pedon.

National Cooperative Soil Survey