LOCATION KAVETT                  TX

Established Series


The Kavett series consists of shallow, well drained, moderately slowly permeable soils that formed in calcareous, clayey residuum derived from limestone or limestone interbedded with chalk or marl. These nearly level to gently sloping soils occurs on ridges on dissected plateaus. Slope ranges from 0 to 5 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 660 mm (26 in) and the mean annual air temperature is about 18.3 degrees C (65 degrees F).

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Clayey, smectitic, thermic Lithic Petrocalcic Calciustolls

TYPICAL PEDON: Kavett silty clay--rangeland.
(Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise stated.)

A1--0 to 23 cm (0 to 9 in); very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) silty clay, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) moist; compound moderate and strong very fine subangular blocky and moderate fine granular structure; very hard, firm; many fine roots; few angular fragments of limestone; strongly effervescent, moderately alkaline; gradual smooth boundary. Thickness is 13 to 25 cm (5 to 10 in)

A2--23 to 41 cm (9 to 16 in); brown (7.5YR 4/3) silty clay, dark brown (7.5YR 3/3) moist; compound moderate very fine and fine subangular and angular blocky structure; very hard, firm; many fine roots; about 5 percent by volume of angular fragments and flat pieces of limestone up to 8 inches across; strongly effervescent, moderately alkaline; abrupt smooth boundary. Combined thickness of the A horizon is 25 to 51 cm (10 to 20 in)

Bkm--41 to 48 cm (16 to 19 in); pinkish white (7.5YR 8/2) indurated caliche, fractured into plates 6 to 15 inches across; brown (7.5YR 4/3) silty clay in cracks comprises less than 5 percent of volume; violently effervescent, moderately alkaline; abrupt wavy boundary. Thickness is 3 to 15 cm (1 to 6 in)

R--48 to 76 cm (19 to 30 in); indurated limestone bedrock, coarsely fractured with cemented carbonates plugging the cracks.

TYPE LOCATION: Sutton County, Texas; about 2.22 miles southwest of the Schleicher County line on Ranch Road 864 in pasture at road cut.
USGS topographic quadrangle: Coal Kiln Draw, Texas;
Latitude: 30 degrees, 41 minutes, 33.2 seconds N;
Longitude: 100 degrees, 13 minutes, 8.9 seconds W;
Datum: WGS 84

Soil Moisture: Typic Ustic moisture regime
Depth to petrocalcic horizon: 25 to 51 cm (10 to 20 in).
Depth to lithic contact: 28 to 53 cm (11 to 21 in).
Coarse fragments: Limestone fragments ranging from few up to 25 percent by volume.

Particle-size control section (weighted average):
Total clay content: 35 to 50 percent
Carbonate clay content: 1 to 12 percent

A horizon
Hue: 10YR or 7.5YR
Value: 3 to 5, 2 or 3 moist
Chroma: 2 or 3, dry and moist
Texture: silty clay, clay, clay loam, silty clay loam or their stony or cobbly counterparts
Clay content: 35 to 50 percent
Carbonate clay content: 1 to 12 percent
Calcium carbonate equivalent: 2 to 40 percent
EC (mmhos/cm): 0 to 2
Effervescence: strong to violent
Reaction (pH): slightly alkaline to moderately alkaline (7.4 - 8.4)

Bkkm horizon
Texture: cemented caliche with or without a laminar cap in the upper 1/4 to 1 inch
Cementation: moderately cemented to indurated

R layer
Kind: ranges from indurated limestone bedrock to interbedded limestone, chalks, and marl bedrock.

COMPETING SERIES: There are no series in the same family.
Similar soils are the Amistad, Cho, Doss, Ector, Eola, Mailtrail, Mereta, Noelke, Oplin, Ozona, Prade, Pratley, Tarrant, and Valera series.
Amistad and Noelke soils: have a loamy-skeletal particle-size control section
Cho, Eola, Mailtrial, and Ozona soils: contain less than 35 percent clay in the particle-size control section and no lithic contact within 50 cm of the soil surface
Doss, Ector, and Oplin soils: contain less than 35 percent clay in the particle-size control section and do not have a petrocalcic horizon
Mereta soils: have a mixed mineralogy and no lithic contact with 50 cm of the soil surface
Prade soils: have more than 35 percent coarse fragments in the particle-size control section and no lithic contact with 50 cm of the soil surface
Tarrant soils: have more than 35 percent fragments in the particle-size control section and do not have a petrocalcicic horizon
Pratley and Valera soils: depth to petrocalcic horizon is more than 50 cm

Parent Material: clayey residuum derived from limestone and is interbedded with chalk and marl
Landscape: dissected plateaus
Landform: summits, shoulders, and backslopes of ridges
Slope: 0 to 5 percent, but are mainly less than 3 percent
Precipitation Pattern: The majority of the yearly rainfall occurs during the fall and spring months. These soils are intermittently moist in September through November and March through May. June through August and December through February are the driest months.
Mean annual precipitation: 406 to 787 mm (18 to 31 in)
Thornthwaite P-E Index: 26 to 44
Mean annual air temperature: 17.2 to 21.1 degrees C (63 degrees to 70 degrees F).
Frost-free period: 210 to 240
Elevation: 304.8 to 792.5 m (1000 to 2600 ft)

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Mereta, Nuvalde, Tarrant, Tobosa and Valera series. These soils have sola thicker than 20 inches.
Mereta soils: occur on lower terraces or fans
Nuvalde, Tobosa, and Valera soils: are more than 51 cm (20 in) deep to a restrictive layer and occur on lower positions
Tarrant soils: have more than 35 percent fragments in the particle-size control section and occur on similar positions

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained. Permeability is moderately slow. Runoff is negligible on 0 to 1 percent slopes, very low on 1 to 3 percent slopes, and low on 3 to 5 percent slopes.

USE AND VEGETATION: Used mainly for livestock grazing and wildlife habitat. Some areas are used for growing small grains. Vegetation in pastures is mainly midgrasses and some liveoak and mesquite.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Texas; LRR I, MLRA 81B - Edwards Plateau, Central Part; The soil is extensive with over 1 million acres.


SERIES ESTABLISHED: Sutton County, Texas; 1965.

REMARKS: Kavett soils were formerly included as shallow phases of the Valera series.

Edited 10/2016 (RFG-LAD): Changed to tabular format. Added metric measurements. Updated competing series, geographic setting, and associated soils sections.

Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
Mollic epipedon - 0 to 41 cm (0 to 16 in)
Petrocalcic horizon - 41 to 48 cm (16 to 19 in)
Lithic contact - 48 to more than 76 cm (19 to more than 30 in)

Taxonomic Version: Keys to Soil Taxonomy, Twelfth Edition, 2014

National Cooperative Soil Survey