LOCATION LYBRAND            OH+IN
Established Series
Rev. RMG-PCJ-RAR
04/2007

LYBRAND SERIES


The Lybrand series consists of very deep, well drained soils that are deep or moderately deep to dense till. They formed in silty clay loam or clay loam till. Some pedons have a thin mantle of loess less than 46 cm (18 inches) thick. These soils are on dissected end moraines and ground moraines. Slope ranges from 12 to 70 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 940 mm (37 inches), and mean annual air temperature is about 10 degrees C (50 degrees F).

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine, illitic, mesic Typic Hapludalfs

TYPICAL PEDON: Lybrand silt loam, on a 16 percent slope in grass (formerly cultivated) at an elevation of 276 meters (906 feet) above mean sea level. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)

Ap--0 to 23 cm (0 to 9 inches); dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt loam, pale brown (10YR 6/3) dry; moderate medium granular structure; friable; many fine and very fine roots; 2 percent gravel; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary. [5 to 25 cm (2 to 10 inches) thick]

Bt1--23 to 33 cm (9 to 13 inches); yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silty clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; common very fine roots; common distinct brown (10YR 4/3) organic coatings on faces of peds; few distinct brown (7.5YR 4/2) clay films on faces of peds; 2 percent gravel; neutral; clear smooth boundary.

Bt2--33 to 53 cm (13 to 21 inches); yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silty clay; strong medium and fine subangular blocky structure; firm; common very fine roots; many distinct brown (7.5YR 4/2 and 4/4) clay films on faces of peds; 2 percent gravel; neutral; gradual smooth boundary.

Bt3--53 to 69 cm (21 to 27 inches); yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silty clay; weak medium prismatic structure parting to strong medium subangular blocky; firm; few very fine roots; many distinct brown (7.5YR 4/2 and 4/4) clay films on faces of peds; 2 percent gravel; slightly alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.

Bt4--69 to 84 cm (27 to 33 inches); yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silty clay loam; weak medium prismatic structure parting to strong medium subangular blocky; firm; few very fine roots; many distinct brown (7.5YR 4/2 and 4/4) clay films on faces of peds; 2 percent gravel; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. [Combined thickness of the Bt horizon is 38 to 102 cm (15 to 40 inches).]

BC--84 to 114 cm (33 to 45 inches); yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silty clay loam; weak thick platy structure parting to weak fine subangular blocky; firm; few very fine roots; few distinct brown (7.5YR 4/4) clay films on faces of peds; common distinct grayish brown (10YR 5/2) carbonate coatings on faces of peds; very few distinct light gray (10YR 7/1) carbonate coatings in old root channels; few medium prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) masses of iron accumulation in the matrix; few distinct light gray (10YR 7/1) carbonate threads and accumulations in the matrix; 5 percent limestone and shale gravel; strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. [13 to 51 cm (5 to 20 inches) thick]

Cd--114 to 203 cm (45 to 80 inches); brown (10YR 5/3) silty clay loam; massive with weak thick platy partings and widely spaced vertical fractures; very firm; common distinct light gray (10YR 7/2) carbonate coatings on vertical fractures; common faint grayish brown (10YR 5/2) iron depletions on vertical fractures; few medium prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) masses of iron accumulation in the matrix; common faint very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) masses of iron and manganese accumulation on faces of vertical fractures; 5 percent limestone and shale gravel; strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline.

TYPE LOCATION: Delaware County, Ohio; about 6 miles west of Delaware, in Scioto Township; 550 feet north and 1,000 feet west of the intersection of US36 and OH257; USGS Ostrander, Ohio topographic quadrangle; lat. 40 degrees 16 minutes 24.4 seconds N. and long. 83 degrees 09 minutes 50.5 seconds W., NAD 27.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS:
Depth to the base of the ochric epipedon: 13 to 30 cm (5 to 12 inches)
Depth to the base of the argillic horizon: 61 to 127 cm (24 to 50 inches)
Thickness of the solum: 102 to 152 cm (40 to 60 inches), but ranges to 61 cm (24 inches) in severely eroded pedons
Depth to the densic contact: 102 to 152 cm (40 to 60 inches), but ranges to 61 cm (24 inches) in severely eroded pedons
Depth to carbonates: 41 to 102 cm (16 to 40 inches)
Thickness of the loess: less than 46 cm (18 inches) where present
Depth to bedrock: greater than 203 cm (80 inches)
Rock fragments: dominantly gravel of limestone, shale, and crystalline lithology
Particle-size control section: averages 35 to 50 percent clay and 10 to 45 percent sand
Mean annual soil temperature: 10 to 14 degrees C (50 to 57 degrees F)

Ap or A horizon:
Hue: 10YR
Value: 2 to 4 (6 or more dry)
Chroma: 2 or 3; some severely eroded pedons range to 4
Texture: silt loam, silty clay loam, or loam
Rock fragment content: 0 to 10 percent
Reaction: strongly acid to neutral; some severely eroded pedons are slightly alkaline and some contain carbonates

Some pedons have an E or BE horizon.

Bt horizon:
Hue: 7.5YR or 10YR
Value: 4 or 5
Chroma: 4 to 6
Texture: silty clay loam, clay loam, silty clay, or clay
Rock fragment content: 0 to 10 percent
Reaction: strongly acid to neutral in the upper part unless eroded, and slightly acid to moderately alkaline in the lower part; some pedons contain carbonates

BC horizon:
Hue: 10YR
Value: 4 or 5
Chroma: 2 to 4
Texture: silty clay loam or clay loam
Rock fragment content: 0 to 10 percent
Reaction: slightly alkaline or moderately alkaline

Cd horizon:
Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
Value: 4 or 5
Chroma: 2 to 4
Texture: silty clay loam or clay loam
Rock fragment content: 2 to 14 percent
Calcium carbonate equivalent: 20 to 35 percent
Reaction: slightly alkaline or moderately alkaline

COMPETING SERIES: These are the Edom, Millheim, and Saylesville series. Edom soils have more than 14 percent rock fragments in the lower part of the series control section. Millheim soils have a paralithic contact within a depth of 152 cm (60 inches). Saylesville soils have less than 2 percent rock fragments in the lower part of the series control section.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Lybrand soils are on dissected end moraines and ground moraines of Wisconsin age. Slope ranges from 12 to 70 percent. They formed in silty clay loam or clay loam till. Some pedons have a thin mantle of loess less than 46 cm (18 inches) thick. Rock fragments are mainly of limestone, shale, and crystalline lithology. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 787 to 1067 mm (31 to 42 inches). Mean annual air temperature ranges from 8 to 12 degrees C (46 to 54 degrees F).

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Blount, Glynwood, Morley, and Pewamo soils. The somewhat poorly drained Blount soils and the moderately well drained Glynwood and Morley soils are either on slightly higher lying summits of the till plain or lower lying areas of moraines. The very poorly drained Pewamo soils are in slight depressions.

DRAINAGE AND SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY: Well drained. The depth to the top of an intermittent perched high water table ranges from 107 to 183 cm (3.5 to 6 feet) between February and April in normal years. The potential for surface runoff is high or very high. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is moderately low in the subsoil and low in the substratum. Permeability is slow in the subsoil and slow or very slow in the substratum.

USE AND VEGETATION: Most areas are used for hayland and woodland. Some areas are cultivated. Corn, soybeans, and small grains are the main crops. Native vegetation is mixed hardwoods.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Ohio and Indiana, and possibly in Michigan; MLRA 111B. The series is of moderate extent.

MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Indianapolis, Indiana.

SERIES ESTABLISHED: Delaware County, Ohio, 1996.

REMARKS: It is anticipated that some map units formerly correlated as Morley series will be recorrelated to Lybrand series during MLRA update activities in Ohio, Indiana, and Michigan.

Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
Ochric epipedon: from the surface to a depth of 23 cm (Ap horizon).
Argillic horizon: from a depth of 23 to 114 cm (Bt, BC horizons).
Densic contact: at 114 cm (top of the Cd horizon).

ADDITIONAL DATA: Laboratory characterization data from The Ohio State University Soil Characterization Laboratory is available for DL-57, the typical pedon.


National Cooperative Soil Survey
U.S.A.