LOCATION MIDESSA                 TX+NM

Established Series
RM-TCB
10/2022

MIDESSA SERIES


The Midessa series consists of very deep, well drained, and moderately permeable soils. These soils formed in calcareous, loamy eolian and lacustrine deposits derived from the Tahoka and Blackwater Draw Formations of Pleistocene age. Midessa soils are on nearly level to strongly sloping plains, playa slopes, and draws with slopes ranging from 0 to 12 percent. The mean annual precipitation is about 483 mm (19 in), and the mean annual air temperature is about 16 degrees C (61 degrees F).

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, thermic Aridic Calciustepts

TYPICAL PEDON:Midessa fine sandy loam, east-facing, slightly concave playa step, 0.5 percent slope in rangeland at an elevation of about 851 m (2,793 ft). (Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.)

A--0 to 25 cm (0 to 10 in); brown (10YR 5/3) fine sandy loam, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; weak fine subangular blocky and granular structure; slightly hard, friable; many fine roots; many fine tubular pores; few wormcasts; few fine calcium carbonate nodules; violently effervescent; moderately alkaline; gradual smooth boundary. (13 to 36 cm thick)

Bk--25 to 76 cm (10 to 30 in); pale brown (10YR 6/3) sandy clay loam, brown (10YR 5/3) moist; moderate medium prismatic structure parting to moderate fine and medium subangular blocky; slightly hard, friable; few fine roots; few fine tubular pores; about 8 percent calcium carbonate by volume in the form of filaments, nodules, and finely disseminated carbonates; violently effervescent; moderately alkaline; clear wavy boundary. (38 to 76 cm thick)

Bkk--76 to 152 cm (30 to 60 in); very pale brown (10YR 8/3) sandy clay loam, very pale brown (10YR 7/3) moist; moderate medium prismatic structure parting to moderate fine and medium subangular blocky; slightly hard, friable; few fine tubular pores; about 52 percent calcium carbonate by volume in the form of masses, nodules, and finely disseminated carbonates; violently effervescent; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. (25 to 76 cm thick)

B'k--152 to 203 cm (60 to 80 in); light brown (7.5YR 6/4) sandy clay loam, brown (7.5YR 5/4) moist; moderate medium prismatic structure parting to moderate fine and medium subangular blocky; slightly hard, friable; few fine tubular pores; about 35 percent calcium carbonate by volume in the form of masses, nodules, and finely disseminated carbonates; violently effervescent; moderately alkaline

TYPE LOCATION:Martin County, Texas; from the intersection of Texas Highways 829
and 176 in Grady, 4 miles south on Texas Highway 829, 5 miles west on county road, then 150 ft south in native rangeland; Latitude: 32 degrees,13 minutes, 51 seconds N; Longitude: 101 degrees, 59 minutes, 43 seconds W; Dickenson Ranch, Texas USGS quad; NAD 83.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS:
Soil moisture: An ustic moisture regime bordering on aridic. The soil moisture
control section is dry in some or all parts for more than 180 but less than 220
days, cumulative, in normal years. July through August and December through
February are the driest months. These soils are intermittently moist in
September through November and March through June.
Mean annual soil temperature: 15 to 18 degrees C (59 to 64 degrees F).
Depth to secondary carbonates: 25 to 50 cm (10 to 20 in).
Depth to calcic horizon: 50 to 100 cm (20 to 40 in).
Particle-size control section: 18 to 35 percent silicate clay
Solum thickness: more than 203 cm (80 in).

A horizon:
Hue: 5YR to 10YR
Value: 5 or 6 dry, 4 or 5 moist
Chroma: 2 to 4
Texture: fine sandy loam
Coarse fragments: 0 to 5 percent calcium carbonate nodules
Effervescence: strong or violent
Reaction: moderately alkaline

Bk horizons:
Hue: 7.5YR or 10YR
Value: 6 to 7 dry, 5 to 6 moist
Chroma: 2 to 6
Texture: sandy clay loam, fine sandy loam
Visible secondary calcium carbonate: 5 to 50 percent by volume as films, filaments, masses, nodules, and finely disseminated carbonates.
Calcium carbonate by weight: 3 to 40 percent by weight
Effervescence: violent
Reaction: moderately or strongly alkaline

Bkk horizons:
Hue: 7.5YR or 10YR
Value: 6 to 8 dry, 5 to 7 moist
Chroma: 1 to 3
Texture: sandy clay loam or clay loam
Visible secondary calcium carbonate: 50 to 60 percent by volume as films, filaments, masses, nodules, and finely disseminated carbonates.
Calcium carbonate by weight: 40 to 50 percent by weight
Effervescence: violent
Reaction: moderately or strongly alkaline

B'k horizons (where present):
Hue: 7.5YR or 10YR
Value: 6 to 7 dry, 5 to 6 moist
Chroma: 2 to 6
Texture: sandy clay loam, fine sandy loam
Visible secondary calcium carbonate: 10 to 50 percent by volume as films, filaments, masses, nodules, and finely disseminated carbonates.
Calcium carbonate by weight: 5 to 40 percent by weight
Effervescence: violent
Reaction: moderately or strongly alkaline

COMPETING SERIES:This is theDrakeseries in the same family. Similar soils also include theArch,Crossroads, Gomez, andLenorahseries.
Drakesoils: have less than 40 percent calcium carbonate equivalent in calcic horizons.
Archsoils: have carbonatic mineralogy.
Crossroads soils: have a petrocalcic horizon within 50 cm.
Gomezsoils: have less than 18 percent clay in the particle-size control section.
Lenorahsoils: have SAR of 13 or more within 51 cm (20 in) of the soil surface and a water table within 40 in of the soil surface at some time during some years.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING:
Parent material: calcareous, loamy eolian and lacustrine deposits derived from the Tahoka and Blackwater Draw Formation of Pleistocene age.
Landform: nearly level to strongly sloping plains, playa slopes, and draws.
Slopes: 0 to 12 percent.
Mean annual air temperature: 14 to 17 degrees C (57 to 63 degrees F).
Mean annual precipitation: 432 to 533 mm (17 to 21 in).
Frost-free period: 185 to 220 days.
Elevation: 792 to 1,402 m (2,600 to 4,600 ft).
Thornthwaite annual P-E Index Values: 25 to 36

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS:These include the similarArch,Crossroads, Drake,Gomez, andLenorahseries and theAmarillo,Brownfield,Levelland,Patricia,Portales,Posey,Potter,Ranco,Sparenberg, andTokioseries.
Archsoils are on playa steps and interdunes.
Crossroads soils are on similar landscape positions.
Drakesoils are on playa dunes.
Gomez,Portales, andPoseysoils are on similar landscape positions.
Lenorahsoils are on slightly lower landscape positions.
Amarillo,Brownfield,Patricia, andTokiosoils are on similar landscape positions and have an argillic horizon.
Levellandsoils are on lower landscape positions and have 10 to 18 percent silicate clay in the particle-size control section.
Pottersoils are on similar landscape positions and have carbonatic mineralogy.
RancoandSparenbergsoils are on lower landscape positions and have 40 to 50 percent silicate clay in the particle-size control section.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY:Well drained and moderate permeability. Surface runoff is negligible on 0 to 1 percent slopes, low on 1 to 5 percent slopes, and moderate on 5 to 12 percent slopes.

USE AND VEGETATION:Mainly used for cropland. Principal crops grown are cotton,
grain sorghum, and wheat. Climax native vegetation is mainly mid and short grasses and includes blue grama, sideoats grama, and buffalograss, with lesser amounts of vine-mesquite, western wheatgrass, galleta or tobosa, silver bluestem, wild alfalfa, and prairie clover with a light to moderate overstory of mesquite.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT:Southern High Plains of Texas and New Mexico
(MLRA-77C). The series is moderately extensive.

MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE:Temple, Texas

SERIES ESTABLISHED:Hale County, Texas; 1969.

REMARKS:The Midessa series was formerly included in the Gomez and Portales series.

Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
Ochric epipedon: 0 to 25 cm (0 to 10 in). (A horizon)
Calcic horizon: 76 to 203 cm (30 to 80 in). (Bkk, B'k horizons)
Carbonate plugged horizon (kk): 76 to 152 cm (30 to 60 in) (Bkk horizon)
Note: the kk feature is defined as pedogenic carbonate accumulation that is characterized by laterally continuous carbonates that have engulfed rock, sand, silt, and clay particles; plugged the macroporosity of the soil horizon with 50 percent or more calcium carbonate; and obliterated the original soil structure.

ADDITIONAL DATA:KSSL sample - S07NM041-001 (Roosevelt County, New Mexico); S2012TX501006 (Yoakum County, Texas).

Taxonomic Version: Keys to Soil Taxonomy, .Twelfth Edition, 2014.


National Cooperative Soil Survey
U.S.A.