LOCATION NEWSON WI+MNEstablished Series
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Mixed, frigid Humaqueptic Psammaquents
TYPICAL PEDON: Newson mucky loamy sand, from an area of Meehan-Newson complex - on a plane 1 percent slope in a sparse stand of aspen at an elevation of about 955 feet. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)
A1--0 to 3 inches; black (10YR 2/1) mucky loamy sand; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) dry; weak very fine and fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; common very fine, fine, medium, and coarse roots; very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
A2--3 to 8 inches; black (10YR 2/1) loamy sand, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) dry; weak medium subangular blocky structure; very friable; many very fine, fine medium, and coarse roots; extremely acid; abrupt irregular boundary. (Combined thickness of the A horizons is 6 to 9 inches.)
Bg--8 to 16 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) sand; weak medium subangular blocky structure; very friable; few very fine and fine roots; few fine prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation; black (10YR 2/1) soil in some root channels; extremely acid; gradual smooth boundary. (8 to 30 inches thick)
BCg--16 to 22 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand; single grain; loose; few fine roots; few fine prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation; few medium faint dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) masses of iron depletion; extremely acid; gradual smooth boundary. (0 to 11 inches thick)
C--22 to 60 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) sand; single grain; loose; many medium prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation; very strongly acid.
TYPE LOCATION: Juneau County, Wisconsin; about 4 miles east and 2.4 miles north of Finley; 1050 feet south and 700 feet east of the northwest corner of sec. 5, T. 20 N., R. 4 E. USGS New Miner, Wis. Quad. Latitude 44 degrees 14 minutes 46 seconds N. Longitude 90 degrees 3 minutes 14 seconds W. NAD 27.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: (Unless otherwise stated, thickness in the following paragraph is measured from the top of the mineral soil.) depth to the base of soil development typically ranges from 20 to 30 inches, but it ranges to 50 inches in some pedons. The particle-size control section averages less than 50 percent fine sand and typically averages less than 25 percent coarse and very coarse sand. Coarse fragments are absent in most pedons but in some pedons, volume of gravel ranges up to 35 percent in individual subhorizons. Reaction naturally ranges from extremely acid to moderately acid in the solum but ranges to neutral in the upper part, where the soil is limed. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to slightly acid in the substratum. Redox accumulations are in the A horizon in some pedons. Redox accumulations are typically throughout the solum below the A horizon and are in the substratum in some pedons. Redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less commonly dominate the matrix below the A horizon, but the C horizon in many pedons is the color of the uncoated sand grains.
Some pedons have an O horizon of muck or mucky peat as much as 7 inches thick. It has hue of 7.5YR, 10YR, 2.5Y or is neutral in hue. Value is 2 or 3 and chroma is 0 to 2. Some pedons that have O horizons do not have A horizons.
The A or Ap horizon has hue of 7.5YR, 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y; value of 2 or 3; and chroma of 1 to 3. Some pedons with a mucky surface have hue of 5YR or 7.5YR. Texture of the A or Ap horizon is loamy sand, mucky loamy sand, or loamy fine sand. When the upper 6 inches are mixed, the color value moist is 3 or less and color value dry is 5 or less (crushed and smoothed).
The Bg horizon has hue of 7.5YR, 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y; value of 4 to 7; and chroma of 1 or 2. Texture is loamy sand, loamy coarse sand, sand, or coarse sand or the gravelly analogs.
The BCg horizon has hue of 7.5YR, 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y; value of 5 or 6; and chroma of 1 or 2. Texture is loamy sand, loamy coarse sand, sand or coarse sand
The Cg or C horizon typically has hue of 7.5YR, 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4 to 8, and chroma of 1 to 6, but some pedons have hue of 7.5YR or 5YR in the C horizon above a depth of 40 inches. In many pedons the color of the C horizon is that of the uncoated sand grains. Texture of the Cg or C horizon is loamy sand, loamy coarse sand, sand, or coarse sand or the gravelly analogs.
COMPETING SERIES: There are no competing series.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: These soils occupy flats, depressions and drainageways on outwash plains, lake terraces, stream terraces and valley trains. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. Newson soils formed in very deep sandy outwash, sandy alluvium, or sandy lacustrine deposits. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 26 to 33 inches. Mean annual air temperature ranges from 36 to 45 degrees F. The frost free period ranges from about 90 to 135 days. Elevation ranges from 600 to 1950 feet.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Dawson, Friendship, Markey, Meehan, Menahga, Nemadji, Omega, and Sartell. The excessively drained Menahga, Omega, and Sartell soils; the moderately well drained Friendship soils; and the somewhat poorly drained Meehan and Nemadji soils form a drainage sequence with the Newson soils. Dawson and Markey soils are in nearby areas where there is 16 to 51 inches of organic soil over sand.
DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Poorly drained and very poorly drained. The potential for surface runoff is negligible or very low. Permeability is rapid or very rapid. These soils have an apparent seasonal high water table from 1 foot above to 1 foot below the surface for long periods from September to June in 6 or more out of 10 years.
USE AND VEGETATION: Many areas are in wetland vegetation consisting of grasses, sedges, reeds, and shrubs. Some areas are in woodland. Trees are of poor quality. Common trees are quaking aspen, paper birch, jack pine and eastern white pine. Some areas are used for pastureland and some areas have been drained and are used for cropland. Common crops are corn, small grains, and hay.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Central and northwestern Wisconsin and northeastern Minnesota. The series is extensive.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: St. Paul, Minnesota
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Wood County, Wisconsin, 1971.
REMARKS: Diagnostic features recognized in this pedon are: humaqueptic feature - has an A horizon 6 to 9 inches thick with value moist lower than 3.5 and value dry lower than 5.5 (or the upper soil, after mixing to a depth of 6 inches, has these colors) and has base saturation (by NH4OAc) less than 50 percent at 40 inches.