Established Series


The Normangee series consists of soils that are deep to weakly consolidated shale. They are moderately well drained, very slowly permeable soils that derived from shales and clays. These soils are on nearly level to moderately sloping uplands. Slopes range from 0 to 8 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 964 mm (38 in) and the mean annual air temperature is about 19.1 degrees C (66.5 degrees F).

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine, smectitic, thermic Udertic Haplustalfs

TYPICAL PEDON: Normangee clay loam - pastureland. (Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise stated.)

Ap--0 to 18 cm (0 to 7 in); dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) clay loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; weak medium angular blocky structure; very hard, firm; few dark ferromanganese concretions and few rounded pebbles of quartz; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary. (Thickness of the Ap horizon is 10 to 23 cm [4 to 9 in])

Bt1--18 to 46 cm (7 to 18 in), brown (10YR 5/3) clay, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; few fine distinct mottles of yellowish brown (10YR 5/6), dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2), and reddish brown (5YR 4/4); moderate medium angular blocky structure; extremely hard, extremely firm; few fine ferromanganese concretions and pebbles of quartz; distinct clay films on peds; moderately acid; gradual smooth boundary. (Thickness of the Bt1 horizon is 20 to 41 cm [8 to 16 in])

Bt2--46 to 86 cm (18 to 34 in); brown (10YR 5/3) clay, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; few fine faint mottles of olive brown and yellowish brown; moderate medium and fine angular blocky structure; distinct clay films on peds; extremely hard, extremely firm; distinct clay films on face of peds; neutral; gradual smooth boundary. (Thickness of the Bt2 horizon is 30 to 51 cm [12 to 20 in])

Bt3--86 to 112 cm (34 to 44 in), light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4) clay, light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) moist; common fine and medium distinct mottles of yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) and olive yellow (2.5Y 6/8); weak fine angular blocky structure; extremely hard, extremely firm; few clay films; few fine soft masses of calcium carbonate; moderately alkaline; gradual smooth boundary. (Thickness of the Bt3 horizon is 15 to 38 cm [6 to 15 in])

Cdk--112 to 163 cm (44 to 64 in); very pale brown (10YR 7/3) weakly consolidated shale; that has clay texture; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) moist; massive; few fine distinct mottles of brownish yellow and brown; extremely hard, very firm; common soft masses of calcium carbonate up to about 1.3 cm (1/2 in); moderately alkaline.

TYPE LOCATION: Anderson County, Texas; about 4.0 miles northwest of Cayuga; about 1.5 miles west of Cayuga on US 287 then 1.8 miles north of U.S. Highway 287 on county road 493, then 1.75 miles west on county road 494, then 500 ft North of road. USGS Roustabout Camp topographic quadrangle; Latitude: 31 degrees, 59 minutes, 18.20 seconds N; Longitude: 96 degrees, 1 minutes, 25.28 seconds W. Datum: WGS84

Solum depth: 102 to 152 cm (40 to 60 in)
Soil moisture: An ustic soil moisture regime. The soil moisture control section is dry in some or all parts for more than 90 days but less than 150 cumulative days in normal years.
Depth to secondary calcium carbonate: 76 to 203 cm (30 to 80 in) some pedons lack visible carbonates
Depth to densic materials: 102 to 168 cm (40 to 66 in)
Coefficient of linear extensibility: 0.07 to 0.10 in upper 102 cm (40 in) of the Bt horizon(s)
Additional features: The soil has cracks 1.3 cm (1/2 in) wide to a depth of more than 51 cm (20 in) when dry.

Particle size control section (weighted average)
Clay content: 40 to 50 percent

A or Ap horizon:
Hue: 7.5YR or 10YR
Value: 4 to 6
Chroma: 2 to 4
Texture: sandy clay loam, loam, clay loam or their gravelly counterparts
Rupture resistance: hard or very hard when dry
Reaction: moderately acid to neutral

Upper Bt or Btss horizon(s):
Hue: 5YR, 7.5YR, 10YR, and 2.5Y
Value: 3 to 5
Chroma: 2 to 4
Texture: clay or clay loam
Mottles: amount- 0 to 5 percent, color- Reddish and brownish
Redox concentrations: kind- mass of oxidized iron
Reaction: moderately acid to moderately alkaline

Lower Bt or Btss horizon(s):
Hue: 10YR to 5Y
Value: 5 or 6
Chroma: 2 to 4
Mottles: color- yellow, brown or red (when present)
Reaction: slightly acid to moderately alkaline Identifiable secondary carbonates: amount- 0 to 5 percent, kind- concretions and masses
Additional features: Some pedons are calcareous in the lower part
Some pedons may have slickensides in the lower horizons

Cd or Cdk horizon:
Hue: 10YR to 2.5Y
Value: 5 to 7
Chroma: 2, 4 or 6
Reaction: neutral to moderately alkaline
Identifiable secondary carbonates: amount - 0 to 5 percent
Redox depletions: kind- masses of reduced iron (when present)
Restrictive materials: Weakly consolidated shale with clay texture that is stratified with clay loam, clay and shaly clay

COMPETING SERIES: This is the Steedman series in the same family. Similar soils are the Axtell, Bazette, Chaney, Crockett, Payne, and Ponder series.
Steedman soils: are moderately 51 to 102 cm (20 to 40 in) deep to shale.
Axtell, Chaney, and Crockett soils; have an abrupt texture change between the A and Bt horizon.
Bazette and Payne soils: lack vertic properties.
Ponder soils: have solum more than 152 cm (60 in) thick and Steedman soils have sola thick.

Parent material: alkaline marine sediments of shale, clay, and sandy clay underlain in places by sandstone or limestone
Landscape: Inland dissected coastal plains and dissected plains
Landform: Interfluve
Slope: 0 to 8 percent, but are predominantly 1 to 6 percent
Mean annual precipitation: 813 to 1115 mm (32 to 44 in)
Mean annual air temperature: 17.0 to 21.1 degrees C (63 to 70 degrees F)
Frost-free period: 220 to 270 days
Elevation: 68 to 312 m (223 to 1024 ft)
Thornthwaite P-E Index: 50 to 70

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These include the competing Axtell and Crockett series and the Ellis and Wilson soils
Axtell and Crockett soils: are on similar positions
Ellis soils: are clayey throughout and are on similar or more sloping positions
Wilson soils: are gray throughout and are on flat, wetter positions

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Moderately well drained. Runoff is slow to rapid; Permeability is very slow.

USE AND VEGETATION: Principal use is pasture. A few areas are farmed to cotton, grain sorghum, small grain, or corn. Native vegetation is thin strands of post oak with bluestems, Indiangrass, switchgrass, and grama grasses in open areas.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Blackland Prairie and Texas Claypan areas; possibly in the Cross Timbers areas of Texas and Oklahoma. (MLRA 86 A and B; possibly MLRA 84 B) The series is of large extent.


SERIES ESTABLISHED: Anderson County, Texas; 1970.

REMARKS: Formerly included in the Crockett and Payne series.

Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
Ochric epipedon: 0 to 18 cm (0 to 7 in) (Ap horizon)
Argillic horizon: 18 to 112 (7 to 44 in) (Bt1, Bt2, and Bt3 horizons)
Densic materials: 112 to 163 cm (44 to 64 in) (Cdk horizon)
Secondary carbonates: 112 to 163 cm (44 to 64 in) (Cdk horizon)
Soil has high shrink-swell and cracks when dry.


Taxonomic Version: Keys to Soil Taxonomy, Twelfth Edition, 2014.

National Cooperative Soil Survey