LOCATION OCCUR NYEstablished Series
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Sandy over loamy, mixed, active, frigid Aquentic Haplorthods
TYPICAL PEDON: Occur loamy sand on a 4 percent slope in a corn field. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.)
Ap-- 0 to 6 inches, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) loamy sand, light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) dry; weak medium subangular blocky structure parting to weak medium granular; very friable; common medium, fine, and very fine roots; 5 percent rock fragments; slightly acid; abrupt smooth boundary. (5 to 12 inches thick).
Bs1-- 6 to 8 inches, brown (7.5YR 4/4) loamy sand; weak medium and coarse subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine and very fine roots; 5 percent rock fragments; 5 to 10 percent dark brown (7.5YR 3/4) ortstein masses; moderately acid; clear smooth boundary.
Bs2-- 8 to 13 inches, strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) loamy sand; few strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) ortstein masses in lower part; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine and common very fine roots; 10 percent rock fragments; moderately acid; clear smooth boundary. (Combined thickness of the Bs horizons is 4 to 15 inches).
BC-- 13 to 21 inches, yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) cobbly loamy sand; weak medium subangular blocky; very friable; few very fine roots; few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) soft masses of Fe oxides in lower part; 15 percent rock fragments; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary. (0 to 12 inches thick).
C1-- 21 to 29 inches, brown (10YR 5/3) loamy sand; single grain; very friable; few very fine roots; few medium faint yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) soft masses of Fe oxides; 5 percent rock fragments; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.
2Cg-- 29 to 72 inches, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) loam; massive; firm; many medium distinct gray (10YR 5/1) areas of Fe depletions, and many medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) soft masses of Fe oxides; 10 percent rock fragments; neutral.
TYPE LOCATION: Clinton County, New York; in the Town of Mooers, about 1700 feet southwest of the intersection of Tappen Road and Gilbert Road, and 300 feet south of Gilbert Road; USGS Mooers NY topographic quadrangle; Latitude 44 degrees, 56 minutes, 29 seconds N. and Longitude 73 degrees, 36 minutes, 34 seconds W. NAD 1927.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Thickness of the solum is 18 to 40 inches. Depth to carbonates is greater than 27 inches. Redoximorphic features consisting of concentrations of Fe/Mn oxides, or Fe and clay depletions occur within 30 inches of the mineral soil surface. Depth to bedrock is greater than 60 inches. Rock fragments range from 0 to 15 percent by volume in the surface layer, from 0 to 30 percent in the subsoil, and from 5 to 35 percent in the substratum. Reaction ranges from strongly acid to neutral in the solum and from moderately acid to moderately alkaline in the substratum.
Some pedons have a thin Oi or Oe horizon.
The Ap horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 2 or 3 and chroma of 2 or 3. Texture is loamy fine sand or loamy sand, and less commonly fine sand or sand in the fine earth fraction.
The E horizon, if present, has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 5 or 6 and chroma of 1 or 2. Texture is loamy fine sand, fine sand, loamy sand or sand in the fine earth fraction. Structure is weak subangular blocky or it is single grain. Consistence is very friable or loose.
The Bs horizon has hue of 5YR or 7.5YR, value of 4 through 5 and chroma of 4 through 6. It may have faint or distinct redox concentrations in the lower part. Texture is loamy fine sand, loamy sand, fine sand or sand in the fine earth fraction. Structure is weak subangular blocky or it is single grain. Consistence is very friable, friable or loose.
The BC horizon, if present, has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through 6 and chroma of 3 or 4. It has faint or distinct redox concentrations or depletions. Texture is loamy fine sand, loamy sand, fine sand, or sand in the fine earth fraction. Structure is weak subangular blocky. Consistence is friable or very friable.
The C horizon, if present, has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4 or 5 and chroma of 2 through 4. It has faint or distinct redox concentrations or depletions. Texture is loamy fine sand, loamy sand, fine sand, or sand in the fine earth fraction. It is single grain and loose or very friable.
The 2C horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4 through 6 and chroma of 2 through 4. It has faint or distinct redox concentrations or depletions. Texture is loam or fine sandy loam in the fine earth fraction. Structure is weak or moderate platy or it is massive. Consistence is friable or firm.
COMPETING SERIES: There are no other series in the same family.
The Covert, Covertfalls, Gratten, Melita, Menominee, Ocqueoc, and Yalmer series are in related families. The Covert and Gratten soils do not have contrasting loamy textures within the series control section. The Covertfalls soils have a mesic temperature regime. Melita soils are sands overlying loamy deposits at depths greater than 40 inches. The Menominee and Yalmer soils are underlain by loamy material with argillic horizons. Ocqueoc soils have less than 5 percent rock fragments in the solum and lack rock fragments in the substratum. They also have redder hues in the substratum.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Occur soils are nearly level or gently sloping soils on outwash or water-worked sediments overlying till. Slope ranges from 0 to 8 percent. They are usually on slightly convex slopes or undulating landforms of outwash plains and old glacial lake shorelines. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 30 to 38 inches, mean annual air temperature ranges from 41 to 45 degrees F, and the mean frost-free season ranges from 100 to 150 days. Elevation ranges from 200 to 1000 feet above sea level.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the somewhat poorly drained Coveytown and the poorly and very poorly drained Cook soils which are associated in a drainage sequence. Adams, Croghan, Bice, Schroon, and Kalurah soils are also associated. The Adams and Croghan soils are on similar landscapes, but do not have a loamy substratum within a 60 inch depth. The Bice, Schroon and Kalurah soils usually occur on smoother slopes and have loamy textures throughout.
DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Moderately well drained. The potential for surface runoff is negligible to low. Permeability is rapid in the sandy mantle, and moderate or moderately slow in the loamy substratum.
USE AND VEGETATION: Most areas are in hay, corn or reverting to brush. A significant portion of this soil is in forest. Forested areas contain eastern white pine, sugar maple, quaking aspen, beech and paper birch.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Champlain and St. Lawrence Valley of northern New York. MLRA 142. This series is of small extent.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Amherst, Massachusetts
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Clinton County, New York, 1995.
REMARKS: CEC class is added as active. Mineralogy classes for most Spodosols are being changed from mixed to Isotic. It is under study whether this is correct for Entic and Aquentic subgroups. This represents a partial update of the series to Established. Not all items were reviewed at this time.
Diagnostic horizons and other features recognized in the typical pedon are:
1) Ochric epipedon - from 0 to 6 inches (Ap horizon).
2) Spodic horizon - from a depth of 6 to 13 inches
(Bs1 and Bs2 horizons).
3) Aquentic subgroup - redoximorphic features within 30
inches of the soil surface, sandy PSC.