LOCATION OMENA                   MI+WI

Established Series
Rev. RWJ-WEF-MLK
05/2011

OMENA SERIES


The Omena series consists of very deep, well drained soils formed in sandy loam till on ground moraines, end moraines, and drumlins. Slope ranges from 0 to 50 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 762 mm (30 inches), and mean annual temperature is about 6.1 degrees C (43 degrees F).

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Coarse-loamy, mixed, active, frigid Haplic Glossudalfs

TYPICAL PEDON: Omena sandy loam, in a cultivated field. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)

Ap--0 to 15 cm (6 inches); brown (7.5YR 4/2) sandy loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) dry; weak medium granular structure; friable; many fine roots; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary. [13 to 20 cm (5 to 8 inches) thick]

E--15 to 20 cm (6 to 8 inches); grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sandy loam; weak coarse granular structure; friable; many fine roots; slightly alkaline; abrupt irregular boundary. [0 to 13 cm (5 inches) thick]

B/E--20 to 28 cm (8 to 11 inches); brown (7.5YR 4/4) sandy loam (Bt); occupies about 85 percent of the horizon surrounded by gray (10YR 5/1) sandy loam (E); weak medium subangular blocky structure; firm; many fine roots; slightly alkaline; clear wavy boundary. [5 to 10 cm (2 to 4 inches) thick]

Bt--28 to 41 cm (11 to 16 inches); brown (7.5YR 4/4) sandy loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; few distinct dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) clay films on faces of peds; about 4 percent gravel; slightly alkaline; abrupt irregular boundary. [5 to 18 cm (2 to 7 inches) thick]

C--41 to 152 cm (16 to 60 inches); brown (7.5YR 5/4) sandy loam; weak coarse subangular blocky fragments; friable; few fine roots; about 10 percent gravel and cobbles; slightly effervescent; moderately alkaline.

TYPE LOCATION: Leelanau County, Michigan, about 4 miles west of the village of Omena; 600 feet north and 2,100 feet west of southeast corner of sec. 30, T. 31 N., R. 11 W.; USGS Gills Pier, MI 7.5 minute topographic quadrangle; lat. 45 degrees 3 minutes 23 seconds N. and long. 85 degrees 40 minutes 37 seconds W.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS:
Thickness of the solum: 25 to 61 cm (10 to 24 inches)

A horizon, where present:
Thickness: 5 to 15 cm (2 to 6 inches)
Hue: 10YR
Value: 2
Chroma: 1 or 2
Texture: sandy loam or fine sandy loam
Rock fragment content: 0 to 15 percent gravel and cobbles
Reaction: slightly acid to slightly alkaline

Ap horizon:
Hue: 7.5YR or 10YR
Value: 2 to 4
Chroma: 2 or 3
Texture: sandy loam or fine sandy loam
Rock fragment content: 0 to 15 percent gravel and cobbles
Reaction: slightly acid to slightly alkaline

E horizon:
Value: 5 or 6
Chroma: 1 or 2
Texture: sandy loam or fine sandy loam
Special feature: the E horizon is mixed with the Ap horizon where the Ap horizon approaches the maximum thickness; in these cases the E horizon occurs as interfingering or thick coatings on peds in a B/E horizon
Rock fragment content: 0 to 15 percent gravel and cobbles
Reaction: slightly acid to slightly alkaline

Bt horizon:
Hue: 5YR or 7.5YR
Value: 3 or 4
Chroma: 3 to 6
Texture: sandy loam or loam
Rock fragment content: 0 to 15 percent gravel and cobbles
Reaction: slightly acid to slightly alkaline

C horizon:
Hue: 7.5YR or 10YR
Value: 5 or 6
Chroma: 3 to 5
Texture: sandy loam or gravelly sandy loam
Rock fragment content: 5 to 20 percent gravel and cobbles

COMPETING SERIES: These are the Hodenpyl, Millersburg, Oconto, and Perote series. Hodenpyl soils have lamellae within the series control section. Millersburg soils have a sand or loamy sand mantle that is 28 to 50 cm (11 to 20 inches) in thickness. Oconto soils are deeper than 61 cm (24 inches) to the base of the argillic horizon. Perote soils have sand, coarse sand, or loamy sand textures in the lower part of the series control section.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Omena soils are on ground moraines, end moraines, and drumlins. Slope gradients are dominantly 2 to 25 percent but range from 0 to 50 percent. The Omena soils formed in sandy loam till. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 660 to 889 mm (26 to 35 inches). Mean annual temperature ranges from 5.0 to 7.2 degrees C (41 to 45 degrees F).

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are Charlevoix, Ensley, Leelanau, and Emmet soils. The well drained Emmet and the sandier Leelanau soils are closely associated with the Omena soils on similar landscape positions. The somewhat poorly drained Charlevoix and poorly drained Ensley soils occupy the wetter areas associated with the Omena soils.

DRAINAGE AND SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY: Well drained. Potential for surface runoff is negligible to high depending on the slope. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is moderately high. Permeability is moderate.

USE AND VEGETATION: The greater proportion is under cultivation. The principal crops are small grains, grass-alfalfa hay, and corn. A small proportion, especially on steeper slopes, is in forest or permanent pasture. Native vegetation is northern hardwoods, with sugar maple the principal species.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: MLRAs 94C, 95A, and 96 in northern Michigan and northeastern Wisconsin. The series is of moderate extent.

MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Indianapolis, Indiana.

SERIES ESTABLISHED: Door County, Wisconsin, 1975.

REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
Ochric epipedon: from the surface to a depth of 15 cm (6 inches) (Ap horizon).
Albic horizon: from a depth of 15 to 20 cm (6 to 8 inches) (E horizon).
Argillic horizon: from a depth of 28 to 41 cm (11 to 16 inches).


National Cooperative Soil Survey
U.S.A.