LOCATION PALO NMEstablished Series
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Loamy, mixed, superactive, thermic, shallow Ustalfic Petrocalcids
TYPICAL PEDON: Palo fine sandy loam--rangeland. (Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.)
A--0 to 4 inches; reddish brown (5YR 5/4) fine sandy loam, reddish brown (5YR 4/4) moist; moderate fine granular structure; soft, very friable, nonsticky and nonplastic; many fine and very fine roots; common fine and very fine interstitial and tubular pores; slightly alkaline; clear smooth boundary. (2 to 5 inches thick)
Bt1--4 to 11 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/4) sandy clay loam, dark reddish brown (5YR 3/4) moist; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; many fine and very fine roots; common fine and very fine interstitial and tubular pores; common thin clay films on faces of peds and lining pores; slightly alkaline; clear smooth boundary. (7 to 10 inches thick)
Bt2--11 to 16 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/4) gravelly sandy clay loam, dark reddish brown (5YR 3/4) moist; strong fine granular structure; slightly hard, very friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; many fine and very fine roots; common fine and very fine interstitial pores; many fine worm casts; few thin clay films on faces of peds and lining pores; 20 percent petrocalcic pebbles; strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline; abrupt wavy boundary. (0 to 5 inches thick)
Bkm--16 inches; indurated calcium carbonate.
TYPE LOCATION: Guadalupe County, New Mexico; 23 miles southeast of Santa Rosa; 1,200 feet south and 200 feet west of the NE corner of section 20, T. 5 N., R. 23 E.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS:
Soil Temperature: 59 to 63 degrees F.
Soil Moisture: The soil moisture control section is moist in some part intermittently from July 1 to September.
Depth to the petrocalcic horizon: 9 to 20 inches
A horizon - Value: 4 or 5 dry, 3 or 4 moist
Rock fragments: less than 15 percent pebbles by volume
Bt horizon - Hue: 5YR or 2.5YR Value: 4 or 5 dry, 3 or 4 moist
Texture: sandy clay loam or clay loam
Percent clay: 20 to 35
Rock fragments: less than 15 percent pebbles
Bt2 horizon - Hue: 5YR or 2.5YR Value: 4 or 5 dry, 3 or 4 moist
Rock fragments: 15 to 35 percent of which 0 to 5 percent are cobbles, and 15 to 30 percent are pebbles
COMPETING SERIES: There are no competing series. Similar soils are the Hilken and Pojo series. Hilken and Pojo soils have a petrocalcic horizon between 20 and 40 inches of the surface. In addition, Pojo soils contain less than 18 percent clay in the particle size control section.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Palo soils formed in alluvium derived from shale and sandstone. These soils are on mesa tops and plains. Slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent. Mean annual precipitation ranges form 12 to 14 inches of which more than half occurs as brief thunderstorms in July through September. Mean annual temperature ranges from 57 to 61 degrees F., and the average frost-free period ranges from 180 to 200 days. Elevation ranges from 4,200 to 5,300 feet.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Berwolf, Hilken, Kolar, Neso, Pojo and Redona soils. Berwolf soils are coarse-loamy, and very deep. Hilken soils have a petrocalcic horizon between 20 and 40 inches. Kolar and Neso soils do not have an argillic horizon. Pojo soils have a coarse-loamy particle-size control section and a petrocalcic horizon between 20 and 40 inches. Redona soils are very deep.
DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained. Permeability or the soil is moderate above a very slowly permeable petrocalcic horizon. Runoff is low on slopes less than 1 percent, and medium on 1 to 3 percent slopes.
USE AND VEGETATION: These soils are used for livestock grazing and wildlife habitat. Present vegetation is blue grama, black grama, sideoats grama, hairy grama, New Mexico feathergrass, and yucca.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Eastcentral New Mexico. Series is of small extent.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Phoenix, Arizona
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Guadalupe County, New Mexico, 1988.
REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
Ochric epipedon: 0 to 4 inches. (A horizon)
Argillic horizon: 4 to 16 inches. (Bt horizons)
Petrocalcic horizon: 16 inches. (Bkm horizon)