LOCATION RAWSONVILLE VT+ME NH NY
The Rawsonville series consists of moderately deep, well drained soils on glaciated uplands. They formed in loamy till. Estimated saturated hydraulic conductivity is moderately high or high in the mineral soil. Slope ranges from 3 to 70 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 1,270 mm, and mean annual temperature is about 6 degrees C.
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Coarse-loamy, isotic, frigid Typic Haplohumods
TYPICAL PEDON: Rawsonville very fine sandy loam, on an 32 percent southwest facing slope in a very rocky wooded area. (Colors are for moist soil.)
Oe -- 0 to 5 cm; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) rubbed, moderately decomposed plant material; many very fine roots; abrupt wavy boundary.
Oa -- 5 to 15 cm; black (N 2.5/0) highly decomposed plant material; weak fine granular structure; very friable; few coarse and many fine and very fine roots; extremely acid; abrupt wavy boundary. (The combined thickness of the O horizon is 0 to 20 cm.)
E -- 15 to 18 cm; dark gray (5Y 4/1) very fine sandy loam; weak fine and medium subangular blocky structure; friable; common very fine and fine roots; 5 percent rock fragments; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. (0 to 20 cm thick)
Bhs1 -- 18 to 25 cm; very dusky red (2.5YR 2.5/2) very fine sandy loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; few medium and common very fine and fine roots; 7 percent rock fragments; moderately smeary; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Bhs2 -- 25 to 38 cm; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) very fine sandy loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; few medium and common very fine and fine roots; 7 percent rock fragments; moderately smeary; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. (The combined thickness of the Bhs horizon is 10 to 61 cm.)
BC -- 38 to 81 cm; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) very fine sandy loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; few very fine and roots; 10 percent rock fragments; weakly smeary; strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. (0 to 28 cm thick)
R -- 81 cm; schist bedrock.
TYPE LOCATION: Caledonia County, Vermont; town of Stannard; 2,500 feet northwest of Stannard Pond and 1,200 feet south of the Wheelock Town line; USGS Stannard topographic quadrangle; latitude 44 degrees 32 minutes 09 seconds north, longitude 72 degrees 10 minutes 24 seconds west, NAD 27.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: The thickness of the mineral solum and depth to bedrock range from 50 to 100 cm. Reaction ranges from extremely acid through strongly acid throughout the mineral soil. Rock fragments are mostly gravel, cobbles channers, or stones and range from 0 to 30 percent throughout.
The O horizons, where present, have hue of 7.5YR, 10YR, or is neutral, value of 2.5 or 3, and chroma of 0 to 2.
Some pedons have an A horizon that is neutral or has hue of 5YR through 10YR, value of 2 through 3, and chroma of 0 through 2. It is fine sandy loam, very fine sandy loam, silt loam, or loam in the fine-earth fraction.
The E horizon has hue of 5YR through 5Y, value of 3 through 6, and chroma of 1 through 3. It is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, loamy sand, very fine sandy loam, loam, or silt loam in the fine-earth fraction. The E horizon may be discontinuous because of tree throw and other disturbances.
The Bhs horizon has hue of 2.5YR through 7.5YR with value and chroma of 3 or less.
Some pedons have a Bh horizon that is neutral with value of 2 or less or has hue of 10YR, value of 3 and chroma of 1.
Some pedons have a Bs horizon with hue of 5YR through 10YR, value of 3 or more and chroma of 4 or more.
The Bhs, Bs, and Bh horizons are sandy loam, fine sandy loam, very fine sandy loam, silt loam, or loam in the fine-earth fraction. They are moderately or weakly smeary.
The BC horizon has hue of 7.5YR through 5Y value of 3 through 5, and chroma of 2 through 4. It is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, loamy sand, or very fine sandy loam in the fine-earth fraction.
Some pedons have a C or Cd horizon with hue of 10YR through 5Y, value of 3 through 5, and chroma of 2 through 4. It is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, loamy sand, or very fine sandy loam in the fine-earth fraction.
Bedrock is slightly weathered schist, gneiss, phyllite, granite, or anorthosite.
COMPETING SERIES: There are no other series in this family.
Tunbridge series are in related families. Glebe soils have a cryic temperature regime. Hogback soils are shallow. Tunbridge soils has less organic carbon in the spodic horizon.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Rawsonville soils are on glaciated uplands. They are on mountain tops, mountain side slopes, ridges, hill tops, and hill slopes. Slope ranges from 3 to 70 percent. The soils formed in loamy glacial till of Wisconsin age. Mean annual precipitation ranges from about 790 to 2,420 mm, and the mean annual temperature ranges from -3 to 9 degrees C. The frost-free season ranges from about 60 to 120 days. Elevation is typically between 450 to 950 meters.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: The shallow
Hogback and very deep
Houghtonville soils are on similar landscapes. The very deep
Mundal soils are moderately well drained, have a dense substratum, and are on slightly lower positions on the landscape. The very deep
Ampersand soils are somewhat poorly drained, have a dense substratum, and are on nearly level to steep, shallow depressions and drainageways. The very deep
Wilmington soils are poorly drained, have a dense substratum, and are on nearly level to sloping, concave, or depressional areas.
DRAINAGE AND SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY: Well drained. Estimated saturated hydraulic conductivity is moderately high or high in the mineral soil.
USE AND VEGETATION: Most areas are wooded. The common trees are white ash, American beech, yellow birch, paper birch, red maple, sugar maple, balsam fir, red spruce, white spruce, and eastern hemlock.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine, and New York. MLRAs 143 and 144B. The series is of moderate extent.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Amherst, Massachusetts.
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Windham County, Vermont, 1984.
REMARKS: The diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
Folistic epipedon - the zone from 0 through 15 cm (Oe and Oa horizons).
Spodic horizon - the zone from 18 to 38 cm (Bhs horizon).
Lithic contact - bedrock at 81 cm from the soil surface.
ADDITIONAL DATA: Characterization data for Rawsonville and similar soils is available through the National Cooperative Soil Survey Soil Characterization Database: http://ncsslabdatamart.sc.egov.usda.gov/
National Cooperative Soil Survey