LOCATION SUTTON CT+MA NH NY RI
The Sutton series consists of very deep, moderately well drained loamy soils formed in melt-out till. They are nearly level to strongly sloping soils on hills, low ridges, and ground moraines, typically on footslopes, lower backslopes and in slight depressions. Slope ranges from 0 to 15 percent. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is moderately high or high throughout. Mean annual temperature is about 9 degrees C and mean annual precipitation is about 1205 mm.
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Coarse-loamy, mixed, superactive, mesic Aquic Dystrudepts
TYPICAL PEDON: Sutton fine sandy loam, extremely stony - forested, with a one inch layer of undecomposed litter on surface at an elevation of about 250 meters. (Colors are for moist soil.)
Oe--0 to 2 cm; black (10YR 2/1) moderately decomposed forest plant material. (0 to 8 cm thick)
A--2 to 15 cm; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) fine sandy loam; weak medium granular structure; very friable; common fine and medium roots; 5 percent gravel; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. (2 to 25 cm thick)
Bw1--15 to 30 cm; brown (7.5YR 4/4) fine sandy loam; weak fine and medium subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine and medium roots; 10 percent gravel and cobbles; moderately acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Bw2--30 to 61 cm; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) fine sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few medium roots; 10 percent gravel and cobbles; common fine and medium prominent light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) iron depletions and yellowish red (5YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation; moderately acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Bw3--61 to 71 cm; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; 10 percent gravel and cobbles; common medium prominent light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) iron depletions and reddish brown (5YR 4/4) and strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation; moderately acid; gradual wavy boundary. (Combined thickness of the Bw horizon is 35 to 92 cm.)
C1--71 to 91 cm; brown (10YR 5/3) gravelly fine sandy loam; weak thick platy structure; firm; 15 percent gravel and cobbles; common medium distinct light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) iron depletions and common medium prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) masses of iron concentrations; moderately acid; gradual wavy boundary. (15 to 51 cm thick)
C2--91 to 165 cm; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) gravelly sandy loam; massive; friable; 25 percent gravel and cobbles; moderately acid.
TYPE LOCATION: New Haven County, Connecticut; town of Prospect, 400 feet southeast along Merriman Lane from the intersection with Summit Road, and 70 feet north of Merriman Lane, in a wooded area. USGS Southington quadrangle, latitude 41 degrees 30 minutes 31 seconds N., longitude 72 degrees 58 minutes 45 seconds W., NAD 27, in a wooded area.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Thickness of the solum ranges from 50 to 100 cm. Depth to bedrock is commonly more than 2 meters. Rock fragments range from 5 to 35 percent by volume to a depth of 100 cm and up to 50 percent below 100 cm. Except where the surface is stony, the fragments are mostly subrounded gravel and typically make up 60 percent or more of the total rock fragments. Unless limed, reaction ranges from very strongly acid to moderately acid.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 2 to 4, and chroma of 1 to 3. Disturbed pedons have an Ap horizon with value of 3 or 4 and chroma of 2 to 4. The A or Ap horizon is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or loam in the fine-earth fraction. It has weak or moderate granular structure and is friable or very friable.
Some pedons have a thin E horizon below the A horizon. It has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 1 to 3. Texture, structure, and consistence are like the A horizon.
The upper part of the Bw horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR and value and chroma of 4 to 6.
The lower part of the Bw horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y and value and chroma of 4 to 6. It has iron depletions and masses of iron accumulation above a depth of 60 cm. Fine-earth texture of the Bw horizon is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or loam with less than 65 percent silt plus very fine sand. Structure is weak platy, granular, or subangular blocky, or the horizon is massive. Consistence is friable or very friable.
Some pedons have a thin BC horizon with value and chroma like the lower part of the Bw horizon. The BC horizon has texture, structure, and consistence similar to the Bw horizon.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 2 to 4. It typically has redoximorphic features in the upper part. Texture is commonly fine sandy loam or sandy loam, but ranges to very fine sandy loam in the fine-earth fraction. Some pedons have pockets or thin lenses of silt loam, loamy sand, or sand. The horizon is massive or it has weak plates. Consistence is commonly very friable or friable but the range includes firm in some pedons.
COMPETING SERIES: There are currently no other series in the same family.
Woodbridge series are in related families.
Rainbow soils have a dense substratum.
Wilbraham soils have low chroma iron depletions throughout the B horizon and have a dense substratum.
Wapping soils have more than 65 percent silt plus very fine sand in the B horizon.
Woodbridge soils have a dense substratum.
Pompton soils have a stratified sandy and gravelly substratum within a depth of 100 centimeters.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Sutton soils are nearly level to strongly sloping soils typically on footslopes and lower backslopes or in slightly depressed areas on hills on glaciated uplands. Slope ranges from 0 to 15 percent. The soils formed in acid melt-out till derived mainly from granite, gneiss, and/or schist. Mean annual air temperature ranges from 7 to 13 degrees C, and mean annual precipitation ranges from 910 to 1800 mm. The frost-free period ranges from 140 to 240 days.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the
Woodbridge soils and the
Whitman soils on nearby landscapes. The well drained Charlton and the poorly drained Leicester soils are associated in a drainage sequence. Broadbrook, Essex, Montauk, and Paxton soils are well drained and have a dense substratum. Brookfield, Canton, Gloucester, and Narragansett soils are well drained and do not have redoximorphic features. Chatfield and Hollis soils have bedrock within a depth of 25 to 50 and 50 to 100 cm respectively. Ridgebury and Whitman soils are poorly drained and very poorly drained, respectively and have a dense substratum. Scituate soils are moderately well drained and have a dense substratum.
DRAINAGE AND SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY: Moderately well drained. Surface runoff is slow to medium. Saturated hydraulic conductivity ranges from moderately high or high throughout.
USE AND VEGETATION: Cleared areas are used for cultivated crops, hay, or pasture. Scattered areas are used for community development. Some areas are wooded. Common trees are red oak, white oak, black oak, hickory, ash, red maple, gray birch, hemlock, and white pine.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Late Wisconsin age glaciated areas in Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, and Rhode Island; MLRAs 142, 144A, and 145. The series is of moderate extent.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Amherst, Massachusetts
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Worcester County, Massachusetts, 1922.
REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
1. Ochric epipedon - the zone from 0 to 15 cm (Oe and A horizons).
2. Cambic horizon - the zone from 15 to 71 cm (Bw horizons).
3. Redox depletions with chroma 2 or less - zone from 30 to 91 cm (Bw2, Bw3, and C1 horizons).
4. Particle-size class - averages coarse-loamy in the control section from 27 to 102 cm.
ADDITIONAL DATA: Full characterization data for the pedon with User Pedon ID S1999NY005003. Pedon analyzed by the KSSL, Lincoln, NE. The laboratory characterization data for this pedon and similar soils is available through the National Cooperative Soil Survey Soil Characterization Database: http://ncsslabdatamart.sc.egov.usda.gov/
National Cooperative Soil Survey