LOCATION TIOGA NY+NJ OH PA VA VT WV
The Tioga series consists of very deep, well drained soils formed in alluvium on higher positions in flood plains. Permeability is moderate or moderately rapid in the solum and moderate to rapid in the underlying material. Slope ranges from 0 to 3 percent. Mean annual temperature is 48 degrees F, and mean annual precipitation is 42 inches.
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Coarse-loamy, mixed, superactive, mesic Dystric Fluventic Eutrudepts
TYPICAL PEDON: Tioga silt loam - cultivated. (Colors are for moist broken soil unless specified otherwise.)
Ap -- 0 to 8 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) dry; moderate medium granular structure; friable; many fine roots; strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary. (6 to 12 inches thick.)
Bw1 -- 8 to 18 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) silt loam; weak fine medium subangular blocky structure; friable; many fine roots; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
Bw2 -- 18 to 36 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable, common fine roots; moderately acid; gradual smooth boundary. (Combined thickness of Bw horizons is 8 to 31 inches.)
C --36 to 50 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) silt loam; massive; friable; few fine roots; slightly acid.
TYPE LOCATION: Chemung County, New York; 1 1/2 miles south of the Village of Van Etten, between Lehigh Valley Railroad and Cayuta Creek, west of State Highway 34. USGS Van Etten, NY topographic quadrangle; Latitude 42 degrees, 10 minutes, 35 seconds N. and Longitude 76 degrees, 33 minutes, 40 seconds W. NAD 1927.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Thickness of the solum ranges from 18 to 40 inches. Rock fragments range from 0 to 35 percent by volume in individual layers in the solum and consist of pebbles or channers, and range from 0 to 60 percent by volume in individual layers in the substratum and consist of mostly pebbles and channers. The soil ranges from strongly acid to slightly alkaline in the solum and from moderately acid to moderately alkaline in the substratum.
The A or Ap horizons have hue of 7.5YR through 2.5Y, value of 3 through 5, and chroma of 2 through 4. They range from fine sandy loam to silt loam. They have weak or moderate granular structure and very friable or friable consistence. Thickness of the A horizon ranges from 2 to 5 inches.
The B horizons have hue of 7.5YR through 2.5Y, value of 3 through 5, and chroma of 2 through 4. They range from fine sandy loam to silt loam in the fine earth fraction, and are allowed to have individual subhorizons of sandy loam or loamy sand. They have weak or moderate, subangular blocky, prismatic, or granular structure and very friable or friable consistence.
The C horizons have hue of 7.5YR through 2.5Y, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 2 through 4. They range from loamy sand to silt loam in the fine earth fraction. They have loose to friable consistence.
COMPETING SERIES: The
Wirt series is the only series in the same family. Wirt soils have a mean annual temperature range from 52 to 57 degrees F.
Pope series are similar soils in related families. Barbour, Basher, Comus, Ondawa, Philo, Podunk, and Pope soils have base saturation of less than 60 percent thoughout the upper 30 inches. Chagrin, Genesee, and Moshannon soils have more than 18 percent clay in the particle-size control section. Grigsby soils have a mean annual temperature range from 53 to 57 degrees F. Hamlin soils have a coarse-silty particle-size control section. Middlebury soils have redoximorphic features with chroma of 2 or less within a depth of 24 inches.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Tioga soils are on higher positions in flood plains. Slope ranges from 0 to 3 percent. Tioga soils formed in recent alluvium, mainly from areas of sandstone, siltstone, and shale. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 35 to 50 inches and is evenly distributed throughout the year. Mean annual temperature ranges from 45 to 52 degrees F, and the growing season ranges from 140 to 200 days.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: The well drained Tioga soils are members of a drainage sequence that includes the moderately well drained
Middlebury soils, the somewhat poorly drained
Orrville soils, and the poorly and very poorly drained
Fitchville soils are on nearby terraces.
Busti soils are till soils on surrounding hillsides.
Westmoreland soils are commonly adjacent in unglaciated areas.
DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Tioga soils are well drained. The potential for surface runoff is negligible to low. Permeability is moderate or moderately rapid in the solum and moderate to rapid in the substratum.
USE AND VEGETATION: Most areas have been cleared and are used for growing corn, small grains, hay, or vegetables. Woodlots contain maple, ash, red oak, and elm.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Eastern and southern New York, western Vermont, northeastern and southeastern Ohio, the northern Appalachians, and northern coastal plain. MLRAs 101, 124, 139, 140, 144A, 147, and 149A. The series is extensive, about 115,000 acres.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Amherst, Massachusetts.
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Tioga County, Pennsylvania, 1929.
REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
a). Ochric epipedon - 0 to 8 inches (Ap).
b). Cambic horizon - 8 to 36 inches (Bw1, Bw2).
2003-Activity Class has been changed from active to superactive based on lab data from 5 pedons in NY in the Tioga-Middlebury catena
Acreage based on 2004 data.
National Cooperative Soil Survey