LOCATION TOLEDO                  OH+IN MI

Established Series


The Toledo series consists of very deep, very poorly drained soils formed in clayey glaciolacustrine sediments. These soils are on lake plains. Slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 864 mm (34 inches), and mean annual air temperature is about 11 degrees C (51 degrees F).

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine, illitic, nonacid, mesic Mollic Endoaquepts

TYPICAL PEDON: Toledo silty clay, on a nearly level, broad plain in a cultivated field at an elevation of 177 meters (581 feet) above mean sea level. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)

Ap--0 to 23 cm (0 to 9 inches); very dark gray (10YR 3/1) silty clay, gray (10YR 5/1) dry; moderate very fine subangular blocky structure; firm; moderately acid; abrupt smooth boundary. [18 to 23 cm (7 to 9 inches) thick]

Bg1--23 to 46 cm (9 to 18 inches); dark gray (10YR 4/1) silty clay; strong fine and medium angular blocky structure; firm; few fine pores on faces of peds; common medium distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) masses of iron accumulation in the matrix; neutral; clear smooth boundary.

Bg2--46 to 63 cm (18 to 25 inches); dark gray (5Y 4/1) clay; strong medium and coarse angular blocky structure; very firm; common fine pores on faces of peds; common medium prominent dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) and olive brown (2.5Y 4/4) masses of iron accumulation in the matrix; neutral; gradual smooth boundary.

Bg3--63 to 114 cm (25 to 45 inches); gray (5Y 5/1) silty clay; weak coarse prismatic structure parting to strong medium and coarse angular blocky; very firm; many medium prominent light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) and yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) masses of iron accumulation in the matrix; neutral; clear wavy boundary. [Combined thickness of the Bg horizon is 61 to 137 cm (24 to 54 inches).]

Cg--114 to 203 cm (45 to 80 inches); light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) silty clay; massive; firm; thin strata of silty clay loam and silt loam; many coarse faint gray (10YR 5/1) iron depletions in the matrix; many coarse prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation in the matrix; strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline.

TYPE LOCATION: Erie County, Ohio; about 0.5 of a mile east of Springbrook, in Margaretta Township; about 200 feet west and 350 feet north of the southeast corner of sec. 34, T. 6 N., R. 17 E.; USGS Vickery, Ohio topographic quadrangle; lat. 41 degrees 25 minutes 53 seconds N., and long. 82 degrees 52 minutes 37 seconds W., NAD 27.

Depth to the base of the cambic horizon: 76 to 152 cm (30 to 60 inches)
Depth to carbonates: 76 to 127 cm (30 to 50 inches)
Rock fragments: typically absent

Ap horizon:
Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or is neutral
Value: 2, 2.5 or 3 (5 or less dry)
Chroma: 0 to 2
Texture: silty clay, clay, silty clay loam, silt loam, or clay loam
Organic matter content: less than 10 percent
Reaction: moderately acid to neutral

Bg horizon:
Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, 5Y, or is neutral
Value: 4 to 6
Chroma: 0 to 2
Texture: silty clay or clay
Reaction: slightly acid or neutral, and ranges to slightly alkaline in the lower part

Some pedons have a BC or BCg horizon.

Cg or C horizon:
Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, 5Y, or is neutral
Value: 4 to 6
Chroma: 0 to 6
Texture: commonly silty clay or clay, but the range includes silty clay loam with clay content of more than 35 percent; thin strata of silt loam less than 8 cm (3 inches) thick or very thin lenses of fine sandy loam or loam are in some pedons
Reaction: slightly alkaline or moderately alkaline

COMPETING SERIES: These are the Fonda and Toussaint series. Fonda soils have more than 10 percent organic matter in the epipedon. Toussaint soils have carbonates within a depth of 76 cm (30 inches).

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Toledo soils are on lake plains of late Wisconsinan age. Slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent. Toledo soils formed in clayey glaciolacustrine sediments. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 686 to 914 mm (27 to 36 inches). Mean annual air temperature ranges from 7 to 11 degrees C (45 to 52 degrees F). Frost-free period is 140 to 165 days. Elevation is 152 to 244 meters (500 to 800 feet) above mean sea level.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the somewhat poorly drained Fulton and moderately well drained Lucas soils that are in a toposequence with the Toledo soils. Fulton and Lucas soils occupy higher or more sloping landscape positions. The Bono, Latty, and Paulding soils are on similar landscape positions or in depressions. Bono soils have a mollic epipedon. Latty soils have a lighter colored surface layer. Paulding soils have more clay in the subsoil.

DRAINAGE AND SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY: Very poorly drained. The depth to the top of an intermittent apparent high water table ranges from 30 cm (1 foot) above the surface to 30 cm (1 foot) below between November and May in normal years. The ponded phase has an apparent high water table ranging from 91 cm (3 feet) above the surface to 30 cm (1 foot) below between September and May in normal years. The potential for surface runoff is negligible to medium. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is moderately low. Permeability is slow.

USE AND VEGETATION: Most areas of the Toledo soils are drained and used for crop production. The principal crops are corn, soybeans, legume-grass hay, small grains, and special crops such as cabbage, sugar beets, tomatoes, and onions. Undrained areas are in permanent pasture, wetland vegetation, or woodland. Native vegetation is principally elm, ash, cottonwood, soft maple, and marsh grasses.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: The Toledo soils occur primarily in MLRA 99 in northwestern Ohio and southeastern Michigan and to a lesser extent in MLRAs 97, 98, 111B, and 111C in southern Michigan and northern Indiana. The type location is in MLRA 99. The series is of large extent, over 200,000 acres.


SERIES ESTABLISHED: Fulton County, Ohio, 1922.

REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons or features recognized in this pedon are:
Ochric epipedon: from the surface to a depth of 23 cm (Ap horizon).
Cambic horizon: from a depth of 23 to 114 cm (Bg horizon).
Aquic conditions: the zone from 0 to 203 cm.

A calcareous surface phase is recognized. Carbonates are present in the upper 46 cm (18 inches) of the A and Bg horizons. They are characteristically in areas that are downslope from where carbonate charge water is released from springs.

Future reclassification into Vertic subgroup may occur for the clay and silty clay surface phases using present taxonomy.

ADDITIONAL DATA: Laboratory characterization data from The Ohio State University Soil Characterization Laboratory for the Toledo series include profiles: ER-10 (near the type location), HN-74, HN-82, PD-2, and PT-27.

National Cooperative Soil Survey