Established Series


The Warners series consists of very deep, very poorly drained soils on nearly level floodplains and seepage areas of hillsides. Warners soils developed in mineral material of mixed mineralogy, alluvial in origin that overlies marl. Permeability is moderate or moderately slow through the soil. Slope ranges from 0 to 8 percent. Mean annual temperature is 50 degrees F, and mean annual precipitation is 38 inches.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-silty, carbonatic, mesic Fluvaquentic Endoaquolls

TYPICAL PEDON: Warners silt loam, on 0 percent slope in a cultivated field. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.)

Ap -- 0 to 8 inches; black (10YR 2/1) silt loam; strong medium granular structure; very friable; many roots; slightly alkaline; abrupt smooth boundary. (6 to 12 inches thick.)

AC -- 8 to 24 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) at the top grading at 12 inches to dark gray (10YR 4/1) silt loam; moderate medium granular structure; friable; common fine roots in upper 8 inches; common fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) masses of iron accumulation; many remnants of white shells; strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline; abrupt wavy boundary. (0 to 20 inches thick.)

2C -- 24 to 72 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) friable marl.

TYPE LOCATION: Cayuga County, New York; 3 miles north-northwest of Port Byron, 200 yards east of Highway 38, 20 yards south of Seneca River. USGS Montezuma, NY topographic quadrangle; Latitude 43 degrees, 4 minutes, 45 seconds N. and Longitude 76 degrees, 38 minutes, 34 seconds W. NAD 1927.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Depth to marl or to other friable material impregnated with carbonates ranges from 16 to 30 inches. Bedrock is at depths greater than 60 inches. Subhorizons in some pedons contain up to 20 percent rock fragments. Reaction ranges from slightly acid through slightly alkaline in the A horizon and is slightly alkaline or moderately alkaline in the C horizons.

Some pedons have O horizons less than 6 inches thick.

The Ap or A horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 0 through 2. Texture of the fine-earth fraction is silt loam, loam, or silty clay loam, with or without mucky analogues. Structure is moderate or strong, fine to coarse granular. Consistence is very friable or friable.

The AC horizon, where present, has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 3 through 5, and chroma of 1 or 2, with distinct or prominent redoximorphic features. Texture of the fine-earth fraction is loam, silt loam, or silty clay loam. The horizon is massive, or structure is weak to strong, fine to coarse granular. Consistence is very friable through firm.

The C or 2C horizon has hue of 10YR through 5Y, value of 4 through 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. Calcium carbonate equivalent is more than 40 percent.

COMPETING SERIES: There are no other series in the same family.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Warners soils are on nearly level floodplains below springs flowing from limestone bedrock, at the margin of lakes, and on hillsides where there is seepage of calcium carbonate charged water. The soils developed in mineral material of mixed mineralogy, alluvial in origin that overlies marl, either impregnated with calcium carbonate or having marl within the soil. Slope ranges from 0 to 3 percent on floodplains and lake plains, and up to 8 percent in upland seep areas. Climate is humid temperate. Mean annual temperature ranges from 46 to 55 degrees F; mean annual precipitation ranges from 30 to 45 inches; and mean annual frost-free days ranges from 140 to 210 days. Elevation ranges from 250 to 1000 feet above sea level.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Dunning, Edwards, Eel, Genesee, Hamlin, Huntington, Lindside, Martisco, Melvin, Teel, and Sloan soils, which range from well drained to very poorly drained and have a calcium carbonate equivalent of less than 40 percent in the mineralogy control section.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Very poorly drained. The potential for surface runoff is negligible to low. Permeability is moderate or moderately slow.

USE AND VEGETATION: Where cleared and drained, the soil is used for growing pasture, some general farm crops and some specialty crops. The wettest areas contain hydrophytic vegetation which often consists of sedges and cattails. Woodlands commonly consist of elm, soft maple, willow, and shrubs tolerant of wet sites.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Small areas in the Ontario Plain and Finger Lakes regions of New York and the Great Lakes areas of Ohio, Michigan, and Indiana. MLRA's 99, 101, 110, 111, and 140. The soil is moderately extensive.


SERIES ESTABLISHED: Onondaga County, New York, 1903.

REMARKS: In the typical profile the Cg horizon designation is changed to AC due to the structure and colors displayed. It is assumed that this horizon does not contain over 40 percent carbonates. This is necessary to place the pedon in Endoaquolls and not Calciaquolls and in the Fluvaquentic subgroup and not the Cumulic subgroup.

A review of pedons mapped Warners in the past suggests that many may classify as Calciaquolls. Pedons of Warners in the southern part of its range have been reclassified into another series. Use in MD and PA and MLRA 147 is dropped.

1). Original classification placed Warners in the great group Haplaquolls. Because of changes established in the 5th edition of `Keys to Soil Taxonomy' this soil now classifies in the great group of Endoaquolls. Competing series may change as similar soils are reclassified.
2). The depth to marl and other friable material impregnated with carbonates has been made deeper than 16 inches to avoid overlap with Calciaquolls classification. Pedons formerly called Warners that have a calcic horizon should be classified in the Calciaquolls great group.

Diagnostic horizons and other features recognized in the typical pedon are:
a). Mollic epipedon - from 0 to 8 inches (Ap horizon).
b). Aquolls suborder - as evidenced by AC horizon being directly below the mollic epipedon (Ap horizon) with matrix chroma of 1, hue of 10YR, and contains redoximorphic features.
c). Fluvaquentic subgroup - an irregular decrease in organic carbon content, and slope less than 25 percent.
d). Carbonatic mineralogy class - more than 40% CaCO3 by weight in the 2C horizon.

National Cooperative Soil Survey