LOCATION WATSEKA IL+IA IN MI MN WIEstablished Series
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Sandy, mixed, mesic Aquic Hapludolls
TYPICAL PEDON: Watseka loamy fine sand - in a cultivated field at an elevation of 199 meters (653 feet) above mean sea level. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)
Ap--0 to 20 cm (0 to 8 inches); black (10YR 2/1) loamy fine sand, dark gray (10YR 4/1) dry; weak medium granular structure; very friable; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.
A--20 to 25 cm (8 to 10 inches); very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loamy fine sand, gray (10YR 5/1) dry; weak medium granular structure; very friable; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary. [Combined thickness of the A horizon is 25 to 51 cm (10 to 20 inches).]
Bw1--25 to 61 cm (10 to 24 inches); dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) sand; weak coarse subangular blocky structure; very friable; common dark gray (10YR 4/1) coatings on faces of peds; common medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) masses of iron accumulation in the matrix; slightly acid; gradual irregular boundary.
Bw2--61 to 81 cm (24 to 32 inches); light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine sand; weak coarse subangular blocky structure; very friable; common coarse faint dark gray (10YR 4/1) and distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1) masses of iron-manganese oxide accumulation throughout; moderately acid; clear wavy boundary. [Combined thickness of the Bw horizon is 20 to 91 cm (8 to 36 inches).]
C--81 to 152 cm (32 to 60 inches); light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; single grain; loose; moderately acid.
TYPE LOCATION: Kankakee County, Illinois; about 3.2 kilometers (2 miles) south and 7.2 kilometers (4.5 miles) west of Bonfield; 137 meters (450 feet) south and 17 meters (55 feet) west of northeast corner of sec. 6, T. 30 N., R. 10 W.; USGS Leesville topographic quadrangle; lat. 41 degrees 07 minutes 14 seconds N. and long. 87 degrees 31 minutes 37 seconds W., NAD 27; UTM Zone 16, 455761 easting and 4552275 northing, NAD 83.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: The depth to the base of soil development ranges from 61 to 102 cm (24 to 40 inches). The thickness of the mollic epipedon is 25 to 51 cm (10 to 20 inches). The particle-size control section averages less than 10 percent clay. The sand fraction has a high percentage of fine and very fine sand. The depth to carbonates is greater than 127 cm (50 inches).
The Ap or A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3 (4 or 5 dry), and chroma of 1 to 3. It is loamy fine sand, loamy sand, fine sand, or sand. Reaction ranges from moderately acid to neutral.
The Bw, Bg, or BCg horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 2 to 4. It is loamy fine sand, loamy sand, fine sand, or sand. Some pedons contain as much as 10 percent gravel. Reaction ranges from strongly acid to neutral.
The Cg or C horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 1 to 4. It is loamy fine sand, loamy sand, fine sand, or sand. Some pedons contain medium sand and as much as 10 percent gravel. Reaction ranges from moderately acid to neutral.
COMPETING SERIES: These are the Farrington, and Litchfield series. Farrington soils contain more than 15 percent coarse and very coarse sand in the particle-size control section. Litchfield soils contain subhorizons or strata in the middle part of the control section with clay content greater than 10 percent.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Watseka soils are on outwash plains and stream terraces. Slope ranges from 0 to 4 percent. These soils formed in wind or water sorted sandy material. Mean annual air temperature ranges from 6 to 12 degrees C (43 to 54 degrees F), mean annual precipitation ranges from 640 to 1020 mm (25 to 40 inches), frost-free period ranges from 130 to 180 days, and elevation ranges from 155 to 414 meters (510 to 1,360 feet) above sea level.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Granby, Hoopeston, Maumee, and Sparta soils. The loamy Hoopeston soils are on nearby similar landscapes. The poorly drained Granby and Maumee soils are on lower positions. The excessively drained Sparta soils are on higher or more sloping positions. Granby and Sparta soils form a drainage sequence with Watseka soils.
DRAINAGE AND SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY: Somewhat poorly drained. The potential for surface runoff is negligible to low. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is high or very high (42.33 to 141.11 micrometers per second). Permeability is rapid.
USE AND VEGETATION: Most areas of Watseka soils are cultivated. Principal crops are corn, soybeans, small grain, and truck crops. Some areas are irrigated. Native vegetation is prairie grasses.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Northeast and east-central Illinois, northwestern Indiana, north-central Iowa, east-central Minnesota, and south-central and west-central Wisconsin. Watseka soils are moderately extensive with about 36,018 hectares (89,000 acres) correlated in MLRAs 95B, 103, 104, 105, 108, and 110.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Indianapolis, Indiana.
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Iroquois County, Illinois, 1940.
REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are: mollic epipedon - the zone from the surface to a depth of 25 cm (0 to10 inches) (Ap and A horizons).
ADDITIONAL DATA: Pedon 76IL-075-004 from Iroquois County, Illinois.