LOCATION WORDEN VT+NH NYEstablished Series
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Coarse-loamy, isotic, frigid Aquic Haplorthods
TYPICAL PEDON: Worden loam, on a west-facing slope of 9 percent, in a wooded area, covered by 3 inches of undecomposed hardwood leaves and twigs. (Colors are for moist soil.)
Oi--0 to 3 inches; slightly decomposed litter. (Combined thickness of the O horizon is 0 to 8 inches.)
A--3 to 5 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) loam; weak fine and medium granular structure; very friable; many roots; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. (1 to 9 inches thick)
# Bh--5 to 13 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) loam; weak fine and medium subangular blocky structure; very friable; many roots; 10 percent rock fragments; moderately smeary; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. (4 to 24 inches thick)
Bhs--13 to 17 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) gravelly fine sandy loam; weak very thick platy structure parting to weak medium and coarse subangular blocky; friable; few roots; common medium faint dark brown (10YR 4/3) and yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) masses of iron accumulation in the matrix; 20 percent rock fragments; moderately smeary; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. (0 to 12 inches thick)
BC--17 to 21 inches; olive brown (2.5Y 4/4) gravelly fine sandy loam; weak very thick platy structure separating to weak medium and coarse subangular blocky structure; firm; few roots; common coarse prominent dark red (2.5YR 3/6) and common coarse distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) masses of iron accumulation in the matrix; 20 percent rock fragments; weakly smeary; moderately acid; gradual wavy boundary. (0 to 15 inches thick)
Cd1--21 to 53 inches; olive brown (2.5Y 4/4) gravelly fine sandy loam; very coarse prismatic structure; firm and brittle; common coarse distinct olive (5Y 5/3) masses of iron accumulation in the matrix and common coarse prominent dark red (2.5YR 3/6) masses of iron accumulation in the matrix; 20 percent rock fragments; moderately acid; clear wavy boundary. (10 to 48 inches thick)
Cd2--53 to 68 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) gravelly fine sandy loam; massive; friable; few coarse faint dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) masses of iron accumulation in the matrix; few coarse prominent olive gray (5Y 5/2) iron depletions in the matrix; 20 percent rock fragments; slightly acid.
TYPE LOCATION: Windham County, Vermont; Town of Dover, on Johnson Hill, 70 feet west of a logging road, and 0.6 mile north of the end of Maple Road.
#RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: The thickness of the solum ranges from 18 to 30 inches. Depth to bedrock is greater than 60 inches. Reaction ranges from extremely acid through moderately acid in the solum, and from strongly acid through slightly acid in the Cd horizon. Rock fragments are mostly pebbles and cobbles and range from 0 to 25 percent. Depth to redoximorphic features is less than 20 inches. The Bh horizon is 4 or more inches thick and the combined thickness of the Bh, Bhs, or Bs horizon is 12 or more inches.
The A horizon is neutral or has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 0 through 3. It is fine sandy loam, silt loam, or loam in the fine-earth fraction.
Some pedons have an E horizon that is neutral or has hue of 5YR through 10YR, value of 4 through 6, and chroma of 0 through 3. It is fine sandy loam or sandy loam in the fine-earth fraction. It is 0 to 5 inches thick.
The Bh horizon is neutral or has hue of 2.5YR through 7.5YR. It typically has value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 0 through 2, but higher values and chromas are allowed.
The Bhs horizon has hue of 5YR through 10YR, and value and chroma of approximately 3 or less.
The Bs horizon has hue of 5YR through 2.5Y, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 4 through 6.
The B horizon is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, loam, or silt loam in the fine-earth fraction. It is moderately or weakly smeary.
Some pedons have a BC horizon. It has colors and textures are similar to the Bs horizon. It is 0 to 10 inches thick.
The Cd horizon has hue of 7.5YR through 5Y, value of 4 through 6, and chroma of 2 through 4. It is loam, silt loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy loam, in the fine-earth fraction. It is massive or has moderate or strong, coarse or very coarse prismatic structure separating to weak or moderate, thick or very thick plates. Consistence is firm or very firm. The lower part of the Cd horizon, below 40 inches, ranges from friable to firm.
COMPETING SERIES: The Colonel, Crary, Dixmont, Mundal, Peru, Skerry, Sunapee, and Telos soils are in the same family. The Colonel, Dixmont, Peru, Skerry, and Sunapee soils have a Bh horizon 4 inches or less in thickness. In addition the Dixmont and Sunapee soils do not have a dense basal till substratum and are moderately well drained. The Mundal, Peru, and Skerry soils do not have redoximorphic features in an albic or spodic horizon within 20 inches of the mineral soil surface and are moderately well drained. Crary soils have a lithologic discontinuity and are moderately well drained. Telos soils have a weighted average of more than 10 percent clay.
The Adirondak and Wilmington soils are in a related family. The Adirondak soils have redoximorphic features in the spodic horizon. The Wilmington soils have iron depletions in the upper part of the spodic and are poorly drained.
The competing series list is subject to change when THE KEYS TO SOIL TAXONOMY, 5th edition, 1992, are fully implemented.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: The Worden soils are on gently sloping to moderately steep foot slopes or toe slopes or in depressions on glaciated uplands. Slopes range from 3 to 25 percent. The soils formed in compact, loamy glacial till of Wisconsin age that is derived mainly from schist or gneiss. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 40 to 60 inches, and the mean annual temperature ranges from 38 to 44 degrees F. The frost-free season ranges from about 60 to 120 days. Elevation is typically between about 1500 to 2500 feet.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Houghtonville soils and the competing Mundal and Wilmington soils. The well drained Houghtonville soils and moderately well drained Mundal soils are on back slopes, shoulders and tops of uplands. The poorly drained Wilmington soils are in depressions.
DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Somewhat poorly drained. A perched water table is above the Cd horizon from autumn to spring. Permeability is moderate in the solum, and slow or moderately slow in the substratum.
USE AND VEGETATION: Most areas are forested. The common trees are American beech, paper birch, yellow birch, black cherry, sugar maple, red maple, balsam fir, eastern hemlock, white ash, red spruce, white spruce, and eastern white pine. A few areas have been cleared and are used for hay or pasture.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Vermont and New York. The series is of moderate extent.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Amherst, Massachusetts
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Windham County, Vermont, 1984.
REMARKS: 1. As originally proposed, the Worden series was classified as Thixotropic Cryic Fragiorthods. Further study indicates the temperature regime of these soils is frigid.
2. The Worden Series was reclassified to coarse-loamy, mixed, frigid Typic Epiaquods to conform with The Keys To Soil Taxonomy, 5th edition, 1992 in 11/93. The change in classification was canceled 01/94 because of an incorrect interpretation of spodic materials (Bhs lacks spodic colors) and reclassified as Aquic Haplorthods.
3. Albic horizons are often hard to locate because tree throws and other disturbances have destroyed the albic horizons in many areas of Worden soils. When found, albic horizons are often thin, discontinuous, and located within 4 inches of the soil surface.
4. The diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
a. Ochric epipedon - the zone from 0 to 5 inches (Oi and A horizons).
b. Spodic horizon - the zone from 5 to 13 inches (Bh, horizon). Its assumed that the spodic horizon contains spodic materials as defined in The Keys To Soil Taxonomy, 5th edition, page 40, criteria 2b(2), 2b(3), or 2b(4). Some Bhs and Bs horizons will meet the criteria for a spodic horizon as defined in The Keys To Soil Taxonomy, 5th edition, page 22.
c. Redoximorphic Features - masses of iron accumulation in the matrix from 13 to 68 inches; iron depletions in the matrix from 53 to 68 inches.
ADDITIONAL DATA: This series is based on field profile descriptions and laboratory data from Vermont and New York.