LOCATION AMENIA NY+CT MA VT
The Amenia series consists of very deep, moderately well drained soils formed in till. They are on uplands of till plains. Slope ranges from 0 to 25 percent. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is moderately high to high in the mineral surface layer and subsoil and low to moderately high in the substratum. Mean annual temperature is 47 degrees F, and mean annual precipitation is 38 inches.
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Coarse-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Aquic Eutrudepts
TYPICAL PEDON: Amenia silt loam, on a 3 percent slope in a pasture. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise indicated)
Ap -- 0 to 8 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2), light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) dry, silt loam; moderate medium and fine granular structure; friable; many fine roots; many fine pores; 5 percent rock fragments; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary. (7 to 12 inches thick.)
Bw1 -- 8 to 14 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam; pale brown (10YR 6/3) dry; weak coarse granular structure; friable; many fine roots; common vertical tubular pores and few spherical pores; many 1/8 to 1/4-inch vertical channels filled with very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) silt loam; 5 percent rock fragments; neutral; clear wavy boundary.
Bw2 -- 14 to 22 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) loam; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) crushed; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few patchy clay films in depressions on vertical faces of peds; few fine and medium roots; 10 percent rock fragments; common medium faint yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) masses of iron accumulation; neutral; gradual wavy boundary. (Combined thickness of the Bw horizons is 5 to 26 inches.)
2BC -- 22 to 28 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) gravelly fine sandy loam; weak thin platy structure; firm; common fine pores; few fine roots; 20 percent rock fragments; common medium distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) masses of iron accumulation; neutral; abrupt wavy boundary. (0 to 8 inches thick.)
2Cd -- 28 to 72 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) gravelly fine sandy loam; moderate thick platy structure; firm; few pores; 35 percent rock fragments; common medium and fine distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) masses of iron accumulation; slightly effervescent, slightly alkaline.
TYPE LOCATION: Lewis County, New York; 0.5 mile toward Castorland on Highway No. 410 from its junction with Highway No. 26; 50 feet south of the southern edge of the high right-of-way. USGS Carthage, NY topographic quadrangle, Latitude 43 degrees, 52 minutes, 43 seconds. N. and Longitude 75 degrees, 31 minutes, 43 seconds W., NAD 27.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Thickness of solum ranges from 18 to 36 inches and depth to carbonates range from 10 to 34 inches. The carbonates are nearly all of calcium. Depth to bedrock is more than 60 inches. Rock fragments range from 4 to 35 percent by volume throughout the soil.
Undisturbed pedons have A horizons 4 to 7 inches thick. The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 2.
The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 3 or 4 and chromas of 2 or 3. Texture is silt loam, loam, or fine sandy loam in the fine earth fraction. Structure is weak or moderate granular and consistence is friable or very friable. Reaction ranges from moderately acid to slightly alkaline.
Some pedons have a A/B or AB horizon up to 6 inches thick.
The B horizon has hue of 5YR through 2.5Y, value of 4 or 6, and chroma of 2 through 6. Texture is fine sandy loam, loam, or silt loam in the fine earth fraction. Structure is weak or moderate, fine to coarse subangular blocky or granular, and consistence is very friable to firm. Reaction ranges from moderately acid to slightly alkaline.
The BC horizon has moderate to weak subangular blocky or platy structure.
The C or Cd horizon has hue of 7.5YR to 5Y, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 1 or 4. Texture is silt loam, loam, very fine sandy loam or fine sandy loam in the fine earth fraction. It is massive and may part to plate-like divisions or has platy structure. Consistence is firm or very firm. Some pedons have a friable C horizon above the Cd. Reaction is slightly alkaline or strongly alkaline.
COMPETING SERIES: There are no other series in the same family.
Stockbridge series are similar soils in related families. Benson and Farmington soils have bedrock within a depth of 20 inches. Georgia soils are more acid in the solum and have free carbonates at a greater depth. Grenville and Hogansburg soils have a frigid temperature regime. Nellis, Pittsfield and Stockbridge soils lack low chroma depletions within a depth of 24 inches.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Amenia soils are nearly level to moderately steep soils on till plains. Slope ranges from 0 to 25 percent. The soil formed in calcareous, loamy till that in some places is covered by a thin silty mantle. Mean annual temperature ranges from 45 to 50 degrees F., mean annual precipitation ranges from 26 to 45 inches, and mean frost-free season ranges from 120 to 180 days. The elevation ranges from 95 to 1100 feet above sea level.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the competing
Stockbridge soils, and the
Sun soils. The well drained Nellis, somewhat poorly drained Massena, and poorly drained Sun soils are drainage associates. The Galway soils and the Bensen and Farmington soils are associated where the soil mantle is moderately deep and shallow respectively over bedrock. Pittsfield and Stockbridge soils are on nearby landscapes where the depth to free carbonates is greater.
DRAINAGE AND SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY: Moderately well drained. The potential for surface runoff is low to high. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is moderately high to high in the mineral surface layer and subsoil and low to moderately high in the substratum.
USE AND VEGETATION: Most areas are cleared and used for growing hay, small grains, and corn. Vegetables are grown in a few places. Woodlots contain sugar maple, basswood, white ash, tulip poplar, and other hardwoods.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: New York, Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont. (MLRA's 101, 142, 143, and 144A) The extent is moderate.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Amherst, Massachusetts
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Dutchess County, New York, 1939.
REMARKS: The present TP is in an area that is now considered to be in the frigid temperature family. The TP will be relocated during the MLRA update.
Diagnostic horizons and other features recognized in the typical pedon are as follows:
(1) Ochric epipedon - the zone from 0 to 8 inches (Ap horizon).
(2) Cambic horizon - the zone from 8 to 22 inches (Bw1 and Bw2 horizons
(3) Aquic subgroup - as evidenced by the low chroma matrix and high chroma masses of iron accumulation at 22 to 28 inches (2BC horizon).
ADDITIONAL DATA: Laboratory data are available for the typical pedon - S57NY25-2(1-5).
National Cooperative Soil Survey