LOCATION BAMA                    AL+FL MS VA

Established Series
Rev. MGM: PGM; GRB
10/2018

BAMA SERIES


The Bama series consists of very deep, well drained, moderately permeable soils in the Southern Coastal Plain (MLRA 133A). They formed thick beds of loamy marine and fluvial sediments on high stream or marine terraces. Near the type location, the average annual air temperature is about 67 degrees F. and the average annual precipitation is about 63 inches. Slopes range from 0 to 15 percent.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-loamy, siliceous, subactive, thermic Typic Paleudults

TYPICAL PEDON: Bama fine sandy loam, on a smooth, 1 percent slope in an orchard (Colors are for moist soil).

Ap--0 to 5 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) fine sandy loam; weak fine granular structure; friable; moderately acid; clear smooth boundary. (2 to 8 inches thick)

E--5 to 9 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine sandy loam; weak fine granular structure; friable; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. (0 to 7 inches thick)

BE--9 to 14 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) fine sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. (0 to 5 inches thick)

Bt1--14 to 22 inches; yellowish red (5YR 4/6) sandy clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few faint clay films on faces of peds; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.

Bt2--22 to 41 inches; red (2.5YR 4/8) sandy clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few faint clay films on faces of peds; few fine concretions of ironstone; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.

Bt3--41 to 68 inches; red (2.5YR 4/6) sandy clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few faint clay films on faces of peds; few fine concretions of ironstone; common medium distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles that are relict of iron accumulation; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.

Bt4--68 to 74 inches; red (2.5YR 4/8) sandy clay loam; weak coarse subangular blocky structure; friable; common faint clay films on faces of peds; few fine concretions of ironstone; common medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) mottles that are relict iron accumulation; very strongly acid. (Combined thickness of the Bt horizon is more than 50 inches)

TYPE LOCATION: Mobile County, Alabama. Approximate 1.5 miles north of Irvington, about 0.5 mile east on road and about 150 feet south in the NE1/4, NE1/4, NE1/4, NE1/4 Sec. 13, T. 6 S., R. 3 W. USGS Theodore Topographic Quadrangle. Latitude 30 degrees 31 minutes 49 seconds N.; Longitude 88 degrees 13 minutes 33 seconds W.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Solum thickness is more than 60 inches. Percent by volume of ironstone concretions and/or quartz gravel, 2 to 20 mm in diameter, ranges from 0 to 15 percent throughout the solum. Silt content of the particle-size control section ranges from 20 to 46 percent. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to slightly acid in the A, Ap, E, BE, EB, BA and AB horizons except where the surface has been limed. Reaction in the Bt, BC and C horizons is very strongly acid or strongly acid.

The A or Ap horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and chroma of 2 to 4. Texture is fine sandy loam, sandy loam, or loam. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to slightly acid.

The E horizon, where present, has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 3 to 6. Texture is fine sandy loam, sandy loam, or loam.

The BE, EB, BA, or AB horizon, where present, has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 3 to 8. Texture is fine sandy loam, sandy loam, loam or sandy clay loam.

The Bt horizon has hue of 10R to 5YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 6 or 8. In some pedons, below a depth of about 40 inches, it has hue of 10R or 2.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 4 or 6. Mottles in shades of brown, yellow and red appear to be relict redoximorphic features and range from none to common in the lower part. Texture is loam, sandy clay loam or clay loam. Some pedons have a thin subhorizon with texture of sandy loam or fine sandy loam in the upper part.

The BC horizon, where present, has the same range of colors as the Bt horizon. Mottles in shades of brown, yellow and red that appear to be relict redoximorphic features range from none to common. Texture is fine sandy loam, sandy loam, loam or sandy clay loam.

The C horizon, present in some pedons below a depth of 60 inches is massive and is commonly stratified. It has hue of 10R to 5YR, value of 3 to 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. Mottles in shades of brown, yellow and red that appear to be relict redoximorphic features range from none to common. Texture is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, loam, sandy clay loam, clay loam or the gravelly analogues of these textures.

COMPETING SERIES: These are the Ironcity, Minvale and Pikeville series. Closely related series include the Norfolk, Orangeburg and Ruston series.
Ironcity soils are in the Highland Rim and Pennyroyal Major Land Resource area (MLRA 122). Minvale soils are in the Southern Blue Ridge Major Land Resource Area (MLRA 130B). Pikeville soils are on more dissected uplands and have 15 to 35 percent, by volume, coarse fragments in the profile. Norfolk soils are on similar to slightly lower positions and have yellower subsoils. Orangeburg soils are on similar positions but have less than 20 percent silt in the control section. Ruston soils are on similar positions but are bisequal.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Bama soils are on high terraces or uplands of the Southern Coastal Plain. They formed in thick beds of loamy fluvial or marine sediments. The climate is humid subtropical. Slopes are commonly 0 to 8 percent, but range up to 15 percent. The average annual temperature ranges from 62 to 68 degrees F., and the average annual precipitation ranges from 56 to 65 inches.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These include the Benndale, Lucedale, Malbis, McLaurin, and Smithdale series. Benndale and McLaurin soils are on similar or slightly lower positions and have coarse-loamy control sections. Lucedale soils are on similar to slightly higher positions and are rhodic. Malbis soils are on slightly lower positions, have yellower subsoils and are plinthic. Smithdale soils are on similar to lower positions and have a significant decrease in clay within 60 inches of the surface.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained; slow to medium runoff; moderate permeability.

USE AND VEGETATION: Most areas of Bama soils are used for cultivated crops, pasture, hayland, orchards or urban development. Crops commonly grown include corn, cotton, soybeans, wheat, and pecans. Some areas are in woodland that consist of longleaf pine, loblolly pine and slash pine with scattered oak, sweetgum, hickory and dogwood.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Southern Coastal Plain of Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, and Virginia. The series is of extent.

MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Auburn, Alabama.

SERIES ESTABLISHED: Marion County, Alabama; 1977.

REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this soil:

Ochric epipedon - the zone from 0 to 9 inches (Ap and E horizons).

Argillic horizon - the zone from 14 to 74 inches (Bt1, Bt2, Bt3 and Bt4 horizons).

These soils were formerly included in the Faceville and Ruston series.

ADDITIONAL DATA: Laboratory data is available on the National Soil Survey website at: http://ncsslabdatamart.sc.egov.usda.gov/querypage.aspx

Laboratory data was provided by Auburn University, Soil Characterization laboratory, Auburn AL., the Soil Characterization Lab, IFAS, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL., and the National Soil Survey laboratory, Lincoln, NE.


National Cooperative Soil Survey
U.S.A.