LOCATION ORANGEBURG GA+AL AR FL LA NC SC VA
Rev. LWF: SWA, JB, GRB
The Orangeburg series consists of very deep, well drained, moderately permeable soils on uplands of the Southern Coastal Plain (MLRA 133A). They formed in loamy and clayey marine sediments. Near the type location, the average annual temperature is about 65 degrees F., and the average annual precipitation is about 52 inches. Slopes range from 0 to 25 percent.
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-loamy, kaolinitic, thermic Typic Kandiudults
TYPICAL PEDON: Orangeburg loamy sand, in a cultivated field (Colors are for moist soil).
Ap--0 to 7 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) loamy sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine and medium roots; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. (3 to 10 inches thick)
BA--7 to 12 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) sandy loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; many fine roots; sand grains bridged and coated with clay; very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. (0 to 12 inches thick)
Bt1--12 to 54 inches; yellowish red (5YR 4/6) sandy clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; many fine roots; many fine pores; common distinct clay films on faces of peds; very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
Bt2--54 to 72 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/8) sandy clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; few faint clay films on faces of peds; few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; very strongly acid. (Combined thickness of the Bt horizons is 52 to 70 inches or more)
TYPE LOCATION: Dougherty County, Georgia. Approximately 0.6 mile west on Antioch Road from the intersection with Gravel Hill Road and about 660 yards north in cultivated field. USGS Quadrangle, Putney, GA. (1974); lat. 31 degrees 29 minutes 07 seconds N., long. 84 degrees 04 minutes 20 seconds W.)
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Solum thickness typically is 72 to 96 inches and ranges from 60 to 120 inches. Ironstone nodules range from 0 to 10 percent, by volume, throughout the solum. Reaction of the A and Bt1 horizons is very strongly acid to moderately acid, and the Bt2 and underlying horizons are very strongly acid or strongly acid.
The A or Ap horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and chroma of 2 to 6. Texture is sand, loamy sand, loamy fine sand, sandy loam, fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam.
The E horizon, where present, has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 3 to 6. Texture is sand, loamy sand or sandy loam.
The BA or BE horizon, where present, has hue of 2.5YR to 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. Texture is sandy loam or fine sandy loam.
The upper part of the Bt horizon has hue of 2.5YR or 5YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 6 or 8. Hues of 7.5YR are allowed within the upper 10 inches. Clay content of the upper 20 inches of the Bt horizon ranges from 20 to 34 percent and silt content is less than 20 percent. Texture is sandy clay loam. Some pedons have a sandy loam or fine sandy loam horizon that is less than 7 inches in thickness.
The lower part of the Bt horizon has hue of 10R to 5YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 6 or 8. Mottles in shades of yellow and brown range from none to common. Texture is sandy clay loam, clay loam or sandy clay with less than 45 percent clay.
The BC horizon, where present, has hue of 2.5YR to 7.5YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 6 or 8. Mottles in shades of brown, yellow, red or gray range from none to many. Texture is sandy loam, sandy clay loam or sandy clay.
COMPETING SERIES: The
Thursa series are the only known series in the same family. The
Warnock series are in closely related families in the Southern Coastal Plain. Norfolk soils are on similar positions but have yellower subsoils. Thursa soils are on similar positions but have yellower upper subsoils that are more than 10 inches in thickness. None of the other competing series have kandic horizons. Bama, Pikeville and Ruston soils are on similar positions but have more than 20 percent silt in the control section. In addition, Pikeville soils have more than 15 percent gravel in the profile and Ruston soils have a bisequal profile. The moderately well or well drained Noboco are on similar to lower positions and have yellower subsoils. The moderately well drained Warnock soils are on similar positions in the Western Coastal Plain, have yellower subsoils and have Bx horizons in the lower subsoil.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Orangeburg soils are on nearly level to strongly sloping uplands of the Coastal Plain. Slopes range from 0 to 25 percent. Near the type location, the mean annual temperature ranges from 63 to 68 degrees F., and the mean annual precipitation ranges from 42 to 53 inches. The climate is humid subtropical. The number of frost-free days ranges from 215 to 270. Elevation ranges from 170 to 500 feet above sea level.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These include the competing
Norfolk series and the
Wagram series. All of these series, except Grady and Vaucluse soils are on similar positions. The somewhat excessively drained Americus and Eustis soils have weakly expressed Bt horizons. In addition, Americus soils are Rhodic. Benevolence soils have coarse-loamy subsoils. Dothan, Fuquay, and Tifton soils have horizons containing 5 percent or more plinthite in the subsoil. In addition, Fuquay soils have surface and subsurface layers 20 to 40 inches in thickness while Tifton soils have more than 5 percent, by volume, ironstone throughout the profile. Faceville and Greenville soils have clayey control sections. In addition, Greenville soils are Rhodic. The poorly drained Grady soils are in depressions on uplands or along shallow drainageways and have clayey control sections. Lucy and Wagram soils have surface and subsurface layers 20 to 40 inches in thickness. In addition, Wagram has yellower subsoils. Red Bay soils are Rhodic. Vaucluse soils are on upland slope breaks, have yellower subsoils and have the upper boundary of a brittle layer within 36 inches of the soil surface.
DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained; medium runoff, slow runoff in level areas with sandy surfaces; moderate permeability.
USE AND VEGETATION: Most areas of Orangeburg soils are used for growing cotton, corn, tobacco and peanuts. Some areas are in pasture and woodland. Forest species include longleaf pine, shortleaf pine, loblolly pine, various oaks, hickory and dogwood.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: The Southern Coastal Plain of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia. The series is of large extent.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Auburn, Alabama.
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Darlington Area, South Carolina; 1902.
REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon:
Ochric epipedon - the zone from the surface to 7 inches (Ap horizon).
Argillic horizon - the zone from 7 to 72 inches (BA, Bt1 and Bt2 horizons).
Kandic horizon - the zone from 7 to 72 inches with low activity clay in most of the upper 40 horizon (BA, Bt1 and Bt2 horizons).
Orangeburg soils are in MLRAs 133A, 133B, 137 and 153A.
ADDITIONAL DATA: Laboratory data is available on the National Soil Survey website at: http://ncsslabdatamart.sc.egov.usda.gov/querypage.aspx
Laboratory data was provided by Auburn University, Soil Characterization Laboratory, Auburn AL, The University of Florida, Department of Soil and Water Science, Gainesville, FL; and the National Soil Survey Laboratory, Lincoln, NE.
National Cooperative Soil Survey