LOCATION CANEADEA OH+NY PA
The Caneadea series consists of very deep, somewhat poorly drained, nearly level to strongly sloping soils on slackwater terraces of lake plains and valley floors of depressional landscapes. They formed in clayey Wisconsin age glaciolacustrine sediments. Permeability is very slow. Slope ranges from 0 to 15 percent. The mean annual precipitation is about 36 inches, and the mean annual temperature is about 49 degrees F.
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine, illitic, mesic Aeric Endoaqualfs
TYPICAL PEDON: Caneadea silt loam, 3 percent slope, in a cultivated field. Elevation is 1,000 feet msl. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)
Ap -- 0 to 7 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt loam; weak medium granular structure; friable; very strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary. (6 to 10 inches thick.)
BE -- 7 to 10 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) silty clay; strong medium subangular blocky structure; firm; many faint light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) clay depletions on faces of peds; many medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) soft masses of iron accumulation in the matrix; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. (0 to 6 inches thick.)
Bt1 -- 10 to 17 inches; mottled yellowish brown (10YR 5/4 and 5/6) and light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) silty clay; strong medium prismatic structure parting to moderate subangular blocky; firm; common distinct grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) clay films on faces of peds; common distinct grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) clay depletions on faces of peds; very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
Bt2 -- 17 to 23 inches; olive brown (2.5Y 4/4) clay; moderate medium prismatic structure parting to moderate medium subangular blocky; firm; many distinct grayish brown (10YR 5/2) clay films on vertical faces of peds, and few faint clay films in pores; common fine prominent gray (5Y 5/1) areas of iron depletion in the matrix; few medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) soft masses of iron accumulation in the matrix; moderately acid; clear smooth boundary.
Btg1 -- 23 to 29 inches; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) clay; strong coarse prismatic structure; firm; many faint grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) clay films on faces of peds and few faint clay films in pores; many fine faint gray (5Y 5/1) areas of iron depletion in the matrix; neutral; gradual smooth boundary.
Btg2 -- 29 to 36 inches; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) clay; moderate coarse prismatic structure; firm; common faint grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) clay films on vertical faces of peds and as pore fillings in ped interiors; common fine faint gray (5Y 5/1) areas of iron depletion in the matrix; slightly alkaline; clear wavy boundary. (Combined thickness of the Bt horizons is 11 to 34 inches.)
BCg -- 36 to 48 inches; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) laminated silty clay; weak coarse prismatic structure; firm; few faint grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) clay films on vertical faces of peds; slightly effervescent; slightly alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. (0 to 12 inches thick.)
Cg -- 48 to 57 inches; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) laminated silty clay; massive; firm; gray (5Y 5/1) areas of iron depletion along horizontal and vertical fracture planes; strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline; gradual smooth boundary.
C -- 57 to 60 inches; olive brown (2.5Y 4/4) laminated silty clay; massive; gray (5Y 5/1) areas of iron depletion along horizontal seams 6 to 12 inches apart; common coarse calcium carbonate concretions; strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline.
TYPE LOCATION: Portage County, Ohio; about 4 miles southwest of Aurora, in Aurora Township, 1,500 feet east of the Summit County line and 200 feet south of Old Mill Road, T. 5 N., R. 9 W.; USGS Twinsburg, OH topographic quadrangle; Latitude 41 degrees, 17 minutes, 8 seconds N. and Longitude 81 degrees, 23 minutes, 13 seconds W., NAD 1927.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Thickness of the solum ranges from 40 to 60 inches. The control section averages between 35 and 60 percent clay, but typically is 42 to 60 percent. Stratification is usually evident within the series control section. The soils are typically free of rock fragments, but some pedons contain a few pebbles.
The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 2 or 3. Texture is silt loam or silty clay loam. Some pedons have A horizons 3 to 4 inches thick with hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. Structure is weak to strong, fine to coarse, granular. Reaction is very strongly acid or strongly acid. Areas that have been limed range to neutral.
An E or BE horizon with redoximorphic features is present in some pedons. It has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 1 to 4. Texture is silt loam or silty clay loam. Structure is weak or moderate, fine or medium, subangular blocky. Reaction is very strongly acid or strongly acid.
The Bt horizon has hue of 2.5Y, 10YR, or is neutral, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 0 to 6; chroma of 0 to 2 is restricted to the lower part. Texture commonly is silty clay or clay, and less commonly silty clay loam. Structure is weak to strong, fine to coarse, subangular or angular blocky, or medium to very coarse prismatic, or very thin to thick platy. Reaction is very strongly acid or strongly acid in the upper part, and ranges to slightly alkaline in the lower part.
The BC horizon has hue of 2.5Y, 10YR, or is neutral, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 0 to 6. Texture is silty clay or silty clay loam. Structure is weak or moderate, medium to very coarse, subangular blocky or prismatic, or very thin to thick platy. Reaction is slightly acid to moderately alkaline.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, 5Y, or is neutral, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 0 to 4. Texture is silty clay loam or silty clay. Some pedons are stratified with thin layers of silt loam. Reaction is neutral to moderately alkaline.
COMPETING SERIES: The
Rhinebeck series are in the same family. Brockport and Lockport soils have bedrock within depths of 40 inches. Churchville soils have a lithologic discontinuity and 10 to 35 percent rock fragments in the series control section. Odessa soils have hue of 5YR or redder in the Bt horizon. Remsen soils formed in till and have a higher sand and rock fragment content in individual layers. Rhinebeck soils have sola less than 40 inches thick.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: The Caneadea soils are on plane or convex slopes on lake plains. The soils formed in calcareous, Wisconsin age, glaciolacustrine sediments. Slope ranges from 0 to 15 percent. Elevations are from 570 to 1,300 feet msl. The mean annual precipitation is 29 to 43 inches. The mean annual temperature is 46 to 52 degrees F. The frost free period is 110 to 198 days.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the
Sebring soils. Caneadea soils are in a toposequence with the poorly drained Canadice soils and the very poorly drained Lorain soils. These soils typically occupy lower landscape positions and depressions. The moderately well drained Ellsworth and Geeburg soils and the somewhat poorly drained Mahoning and Remsen soils are on adjacent till plains. The moderately well drained Glenford soils, the somewhat poorly drained Fitchville soils and the poorly drained Sebring soils are medium textured soils associated soils on similar landscape positions.
DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Somewhat poorly drained. The potential for surface runoff is negligible to very high. Permeability is very slow. Depth to an intermittent perched water table is 0.5 to 1.0 foot from November to May in most years.
USE AND VEGETATION: This soil is used mainly for pasture or woodland. Some areas are in cropland with the major crops being corn, small grains and hay. The native vegetation was mixed hardwood forest with oaks, sugar maple, hickory and beech as principal species.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Erie Fruit and Truck Area, Ontario Plain and Finger Lakes Region, Eastern Allegheny Plateau and Mountains, Eastern Ohio Till Plain, and Glaciated Allegheny Plateau and Catskill Mountains. MLRA's 101, 127, 139, and 140. The series is of moderate extent.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Amherst, Massachusetts.
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Livingston County, New York, 1908.
REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
Ochric epipedon - from a depth of 0 to 10 inches (Ap and BE horizon).
Aquic conditions - begin at a depth of 7 inches.
Argillic horizon - from a depth of 10 to 36 inches (Bt1, Bt2, Btg1 and Btg2 horizons).
New surface runoff class names are used and are not comparable or the same definitions as the old names.
It is anticipated that soils correlated as Caneadea in MLRA's other than MLRA 139, and on slopes greater than 15 percent, will be correlated as other series in future MLRA updates.
ADDITIONAL DATA: Characterization data are available for the following profiles: PG-1 (the typical pedon), AB-49, AB-90, AB-94 and GA-S14. Samples analyzed by Ohio State University Soil Characterization Laboratory, Columbus, Ohio.
National Cooperative Soil Survey