LOCATION RHINEBECK NY
The Rhinebeck series consists of very deep, somewhat poorly drained soils formed in clayey lacustrine sediments. They are on glacial lake plains and uplands mantled with lake sediments. Slope ranges from 0 to 15 percent. Mean annual temperature is 48 degrees F, and mean annual precipitation is 39 inches.
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine, illitic, mesic Aeric Endoaqualfs
TYPICAL PEDON: Rhinebeck silt loam, on a 2 percent slope in a cultivated field. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.)
Ap -- 0 to 9 inches, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) silt loam; moderate medium granular structure; friable; many fine roots; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary. (6 to 12 inches thick.)
Eg -- 9 to 14 inches, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) silty clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine roots; common medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation within the matrix; neutral; clear wavy boundary. (0 to 6 inches thick.)
Bt1 -- 14 to 23 inches, light olive brown (2.5Y 5/3) silty clay; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) ped faces; clay films on all faces of peds and on surfaces along pores; common medium distinct gray (10YR 5/1) iron depletions and prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation; neutral; clear wavy boundary.
Bt2 -- 23 to 32 inches, light olive brown (2.5Y 5/3) silty clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; clay films on all faces of peds and on surfaces along pores; common medium distinct gray (10YR 6/1) iron depletions and prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation; neutral; clear wavy boundary. (Combined thickness of the Bt horizons is 6 to 26 inches.)
C1 -- 32 to 45 inches, brown (10YR 5/3) silty clay loam; massive; firm; common medium distinct gray (10YR 6/1) iron depletions and yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation; slightly alkaline; clear wavy boundary.
C2 -- 45 to 72 inches, brown (10YR 4/3) varved silt and clay, and very fine sand; moderately alkaline, moderately effervescent.
TYPE LOCATION: Genesee County, New York; Town of Oakfield, 1,000 yards north of East Oakfield, 700 feet west of Fisher Road, in nearly level field. USGS Batavia North, NY topographic quadrangle; Latitude 43 degrees, 06 minutes, 27 seconds N. and Longitude 78 degrees, 14 minutes, 59 seconds W. NAD 1927.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Solum thickness ranges from 20 to 40 inches. Depth to carbonates ranges from 20 to 72 inches. Depth to bedrock is greater than 60 inches. Rock fragments range from 0 to 25 percent by volume in the surface layer, and from 0 to 10 percent in the subsoil and substratum. Reaction ranges from strongly acid through neutral in the A and E horizons, strongly acid through slightly alkaline in the B horizon, and slightly acid through moderately alkaline in the C and 2C horizons.
Ap or A horizon has hue of 7.5YR through 2.5Y, value of 2 through 4, and chroma of 1 through 3. Texture of the fine-earth fraction is silt loam, loam or silty clay loam. Some pedons are gravelly. Structure is granular or subangular blocky. Consistence is very friable or friable.
The E horizon, when present, has hue of 7.5YR through 5Y, value of 4 through 6, chroma of 1 through 3, and has redoximorphic features. Texture of the fine-earth fraction is silt loam, very fine sandy loam, or silty clay loam. Structure is weak or moderate subangular blocky or it is platy. Consistence ranges from very friable to firm.
Some pedons have BE horizons that replace or underlie the E horizon. Colors are similar to E horizons in hue and value, but chroma 3 through 6 and they have redoximorphic features. Texture of the fine-earth fraction is silt loam, silty clay loam, or silty clay. Consistence is friable or firm.
The Bt or Btg horizons have hue of 7.5YR through 5Y or are neutral, value of 3 through 5, chroma of 1 through 4, and have redoximorphic features. Texture of the fine-earth fraction is silty clay loam or silty clay, with subhorizons of silt loam or clay in some pedons. Structure is weak to strong, prismatic or subangular or angular blocky. Consistence is firm or very firm.
Some pedons have BC horizons that underlie B horizons. They have similar color, texture, and structure to the B horizons, except some pedons have plate-like divisions inherited from the lacustrine parent material. BC horizons are calcareous or noncalcareous. Consistence is firm or very firm.
The C and 2C horizons have hue of 5YR through 5Y or are neutral, value of 3 through 5, and chroma of 0 through 4. Texture of the fine-earth fraction is silt loam, silty clay loam, silty clay, or clay with subhorizons, usually discontinuous, ranging to fine sand. They are massive or varved, or have very coarse prismatic structure in the upper part. Free carbonates are absent above a depth of 72 inches in some pedons.
COMPETING SERIES: The
Remsen series are in the same family. Brockport and Lockport soils have bedrock within depths of 40 inches. Caneadea soils have a solum thicker than 40 inches. Churchville soils have a lithologic discontinuity and 10 to 35 percent rock fragments in the series control section. Odessa soils have hue of 5YR or redder in the Bt horizon. Remsen soils formed in till and have a higher sand and rock fragment content in individual layers.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Rhinebeck soils are on glacial lake plains and lacustrine mantled uplands. The soils formed in glacio-lacustrine deposits having a high clay and silt content. Slope ranges from 0 to 15 percent. The mean annual air temperature ranges from 46 to 52 degrees F., and mean annual precipitation ranges from 30 to 45 inches. The frost-free period ranges from 120 to 160 days. Elevation ranges from 80 to 1000 feet above sea level.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the moderately well drained
Hudson soils and the poorly and very poorly drained
Madalin soils that form a drainage sequence with the Rhinebeck soils. The
Langford soils and their wetter associates are in nearby till deposits.
Alton soils and wetter associates are on adjacent outwash plains and terraces.
DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Somewhat poorly drained. The potential for surface runoff ranges from medium to very high. Permeability is moderate or moderately slow in the surface and subsurface layer, and is slow in the subsoil and substratum.
USE AND VEGETATION: Many areas have been cleared and artificially drained and used for growing hay, pasture, small grains and corn. A significant acreage is idle and reverting to woodland. Native vegetation is red and sugar maple, black cherry, white pine, white ash, and hemlock.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: The Erie and Ontario Lake Plains, and the Hudson, Mohawk, St. Lawrence Valleys, and the Allegheny Plateau of New York. MLRAs 101, 139, 140, 142, and 144A. The soil is of moderate extent.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Amherst, Massachusetts
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Dutchess County, New York, 1908.
REMARKS: This series has been reclassified from Epiaqualfs to Endoaqualfs. While the lacustrine material is fine textured and permeability is slowed, there is no limiting layer to roots or water.
Diagnostic horizons and other features recognized in the typical pedon:
1. Ochric epipedon - the zone from the surface of the soil to 14 inches. (Ap horizon & E horizon)
2. Argillic horizon - the zone from 14 to 32 inches. (Bt1 & Bt2 horizons)
3. Aqualf suborder - aquic conditions within 20 inches of surface (Eg, Bt1, & Bt2 horizons); redoximorphic features in all layers between 10 inches and 16 inches (Eg & Bt1 horizons); and masses of iron accumulation and faces of peds with chroma of 2 or less in the matrix. (Bt1 horizon)
4. Aeric subgroup - as evidenced by matrix chroma greater than 2 in a layer within 30 inches - the zone from 14 to 23 inches. (Bt1 horizon)
National Cooperative Soil Survey