LOCATION CARPENTER KYEstablished Series
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-loamy, mixed, semiactive, mesic Ultic Hapludalfs
TYPICAL PEDON: Carpenter gravelly silt loam--on a 30 percent colluvial foot slope, in forest. (Colors are for moist soils.)
Ap--0 to 6 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) gravelly silt loam; weak fine granular structure; very friable; many medium and coarse roots; 15 percent subrounded fragments of siltstone and shale., strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. (5 to 10 inches thick)
BA--6 to 13 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) silt loam; weak fine and medium subangular blocky structure; friable; many medium roots; common fine pores; 10 percent subrounded fragments of siltstone and shale; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. (0 to 18 inches thick)
Bt--13 to 43 inches; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) gravelly silty clay loam; moderate medium prismatic structure parting to moderate medium subangular blocky; firm; common medium roots; few fine pores, common clay films on faces of peds; 15 percent subrounded fragments of siltstone and shale; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. (17 to 55 inches thick)
2C--43 to 58 inches; mottled yellowish.brown (10YR 5/8), light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4), and light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) channery silty clay; massive; very firm; 20 percent fragments of siltstone and shale; medium acid; clear smooth boundary. (0 to 40 inches thick)
2Cr--58 inches; soft gray shale.
TYPE LOCATION: Boyle County, Kentucky; 12 miles southwest of Danville; 0.7 mile southeast of Carpenter's Fork Road; 200 feet east of Wildlife Farm Road.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Thickness of solum ranges from 40 to 60 inches. Depth to bedrock is 40 to 80 inches or more. Soil reaction ranges from very strongly acid to slightly acid in the upper part of the solum, and from very strongly acid to medium acid in the lower part and the C horizon. Sandstone, siltstone, shale, geodes, or chert fragments ranges from 0 to 35 percent in individual layers, but the weighted average in the control section ranges from about 10 to 25 percent. Fragments are commonly of gravel, channer or flagstone size. The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 2 to 4. Texture is silt loam or loam. When present, the A horizon 1 to 3 inches thick has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 2 or 3. Texture ranges are like those of the Ap horizon. When present, the E horizon 5 to 10 inches thick has color and texture ranges like those of the Ap horizon.
The BA horizon has hue of 7.5YR, 10YR, or 2.5Y, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 3 to 6. Texture is s11t loam, loam, or silty clay loam. Some pedons have few to many silt coatings.
The Bt horizon has hue of 5YR, 7.5YR, 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y, value of 4
6, and chroma of 3 to 8. Texture is silty clay loam, clay loam or loam. Some pedons have few to many silt coatings in the upper part of horizon. Few to many red, brown, or gray mottles in the lower part of he Bt horizon.
When present, the 2BC or 2CB horizon is 5 to 15 inches thick with colors like the Bt horizons. Texture is silty clay loam, silty clay, or clay.
The 2C horizon has hue of 5YR, 7.5YR, 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 2 to 8. Texture is silty clay loam, silty clay, or clay.
COMPETING SERIES: These are Athol, Bolton, Bookwood, Brecknock, Caribel, Culleoka, Door, Dormont, Duffield, Dumfries, Frondorf, Greencreek, Hayter, Lamotte, Legore, Loudonville, Manassas, Mechanicsburg, Morrison, Myersville, Neshaminy, Oatlands, Panorama, Penn, Ryder, Spriggs, Sudley, Washington, Weedmark, Westmoreland, Wheeling, and Williamsburg series. Athol, Lamotte, Panorama, and Sudley soils have redder hue. Bolton soils have saprolite C horizons, and hard bedrock at more than 60 inches. Bookwood and Oatlands soils have a paralithic contact at 20 to 40 inches. Brecknock, Culleoka, Frondorf, Legore, Loudonville, Myersville, Penn, Ryder, and Westmoreland soils have sola less than 40 inches thick. Caribel, Greencreek and Weedmark soils have annual precipitation of less than 32 inches. Door soils have mollic epipedons. Dormont soil lacks lithologic discontinuity, and mottles with chroma of 2 or less above 36 inches. Duffield soils lack a lithologic discontinuity, and are formed in residuum of impure limestone. Hayter soils have C horizons consisting of gravel or cobbles. Morrison soils have sandy loam or loamy sand C horizons. Neshaminy soils have diabase and quarzite coarse fragments. Spriggs soils are formed in materials weathered from hornblende gneiss and hornblende schist. Washington soils are formed in glacial drift, and have quartz, gneiss, and chert fragments in the upper sola, and weathered limestone fragments in the lower sola. Wheeling soils have fine sandy loam or gravelly loamy sand in the lower B horizons. Williamsburg soils are formed in a loess mantle over glacial outwash and have sola more than 60 inches thick.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: This soil is found on Colluvial side slopes, foot slopes, and narrow low ridges with slopes ranging from 2 to 45 percent. Carpenter soils formed in loamy colluvium over residuum of weathered shale or siltstone. Near the type location the average annual temperature is about 56 degrees F., and the average annual precipitation is about 47 inches.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Colyer, Garmon, Lenberg, Tilsit, and Trappist series. Colyer soils are clayey-skeletal and have hard bedrock at a depth of 8 to 20 inches. Garmon soils lack an argillic horizon and have hard bedrock at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Lenberg soils are clayey and have rippable bedrock at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Tilsit soils are fine-silty and have a fragipan. Trappist soils are clayey and have hard bedrock at a depth of 20 to 40 inches.
DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: This soils is well drained with medium runoff and moderate permeability in the colluvial material and moderately slow or slow permeability in the residuum.
USE AND VEGETATION: Most of this soil is forested. Species of trees include upland oaks, hickory, yellow-poplar, black walnut, maple and beech. Some areas are used for cultivation, hay, or pasture.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: This soil is limited to the Knobs section of Kentucky. The expected extent is moderate.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Morgantown, West Virginia
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Boyle County, Kentucky; 1979.
REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in the typical pedon are:
Ochric horizon - the zone from 0 to 13 inches (Ap and AB horizon).
Argillic horizon - the zone from 13 to 43 inches (Bt).
Paralithic contact - at 58 inches (Cr).