LOCATION PANORAMA VAEstablished Series
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Ultic Hapludalfs
TYPICAL PEDON: Panorama silt loam on 2 to 7 percent slopes in a cultivated field. (Colors are for moist soils.)
Ap--0 to 10 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/3) light brown (7.5YR 6/4) (dry) silt loam; moderate fine granular structure; friable; many fine and medium roots; 2 percent subrounded quartz and siltstone gravel; moderately acid; abrupt smooth boundary. (2 to 12 inches thick)
Bt1--10 to 19 inches; reddish brown (2.5YR 4/4) silty clay loam; moderate fine subangular blocky structure; friable, slightly sticky; slightly plastic, many fine roots; 2 percent subrounded quartz and siltstone gravel; many fine pores; common, faint clay films on faces of peds; slightly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
2Bt2--19 to 29 inches; weak red (10R 4/4) silty clay loam; moderate fine medium subangular blocky structure; firm, slightly sticky; slightly plastic, common fine roots; few faint clay films on faces of peds; few fine and medium vesicular pores; 8 percent partially weathered red siltstone gravel; very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
2Bt3--29 to 38 inches; weak red (10R 4/4) clay loam; weak, medium subangular blocky structure; firm, slightly sticky, slightly plastic, few fine roots; 10 percent partially weathered red siltstone gravel; many distinct and prominent clay films on vertical ped faces; few fine and medium pores; few fine mica flakes; very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. (Combined thickness of the Bt ranges from 24 to 48 inches.)
2BC--38 to 55 inches; weak red (10R 4/4) and reddish brown (2.5YR 5/4) very channery silty clay loam; massive, firm, sticky; common distinct clay films on faces of rock fragments; 40 percent partially weathered red shale and sandstone gravel; few fine roots; very strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary. (0 to 25 inches thick)
2Cr--55 to 60 inches; weak red (10R 4/4) fractured, partially weathered, interbedded Triassic siltstone and fine grained sandstone.
TYPE LOCATION: Prince William County, Virginia; approximately 1200 feet north of route 653, about 1.5 miles east of route 646.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Solum ranges from 30 to 60 inches. Depth to soft bedrock is 40 to 60 inches and depth to hard bedrock is more than 5 feet. A capping of transported materials may be present in some pedons and is generally less than 20 inches thick. In the capping, where present, subrounded vein quartz red beds range up to 10 percent. Rock fragments of red beds range up to 15 percent in the solum and from 25 to 45 percent in the substratum. The fine earth fraction of the textural control section has greater than 50 percent silt plus very fine sand. Soil reaction ranges from very strongly acid through strongly acid unless limed.
The A or Ap horizon has hue of 2.5YR through 7.5YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 3 through 6. Thin A horizons, where present, have value of 2 or 3 and chroma of 0 through 2. Texture is silt loam.
The E horizon, where present, has hue of 7.5YR or 5YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 3 through 6. It is silt loam.
The upper Bt horizon has hue of 10R through 5YR, value of 3 through 5, and chroma of 4 through 6. The texture is silty clay loam, but includes thin horizons of silty clay.
The lower Bt or 2Bt horizon has hue of 10R through 5YR, value of 3 through 5, and chroma of 3 through 6. It is silty clay loam, silt loam, or clay loam.
The BC or 2BC horizon has colors and textures similar to the lower Bt horizon.
The C or 2C horizon, where present, has hue of 10R through 5YR. value of 3 through 5, and chroma of 4 through 6. It is a silt loam or silty clay loam in the fine earth fraction.
The Cr or 2Cr horizon is weak red fractured, partially weathered, interbedded Triassic siltstone and fine grained sandstone.
COMPETING SERIES: These are the Athol, Bolton, Bookwood, Brecknock, Carpenter, Culleoka, Door, Dormont, Duffield, Frondorf, Grayford, Hayter, Lamotte, Legore, Loudonville, Morrison, Myersville, Neshaminy, Penn, Ryder, Washington, Wheeling and Williamsburg soils. Athol soils have red calcareous conglomerate rock fragments. Bolton soils have chert rock fragments. Bookwood soils have limestone and calcareous shale rock fragments. Brecknock, Carpenter, Dormont, Duffield, Washington, Westmoreland and Wheeling soils have hue of 7.5YR or yellower. Culleoka, Frondorf, Loudonville, Penn and Ryder soils have bedrock less than 40 inches deep. Door soils have a mollic epipedon. Grayford soils have limestone bedrock between 40 and 60 inches. Hayter and Morrison soils have more than 35 percent sand. Lamotte, Legore and Williamsburg soils have bedrock more than 60 inches deep. Myersville soils have rock fragments of Metabasalt. Neshamany soils have diabase and rock fragments.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Panorama soils are on broad, gently sloping to strongly sloping convex drainage divides in the Culpeper Basin of the Northern part of the Piedmont Plateau. These soils formed mainly in residuum of red Triassic and Jurassic interbedded silt stones and fine grained sandstones. A capping of transported materials may be present in some pedons and is generally less than 20 inches thick. Slope gradients range from 2 to 15 percent. The mean annual temperature ranges from 53 to 57 degrees F and mean annual precipitation ranges from 38 to 44 inches.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are poorly drained Albano soils, well drained Arcola soils, moderately well to somewhat poorly drained Dulles soils, well to moderately well drained Manassas and moderately well drained Reaville soils. Albano, Dulles and Reaville soils have low chroma mottling and seasonal perched water tables. Manassas soils are on concave landforms in saddles and along drainageways and have perched water tables. Arcola soils are moderately deep and have Cr horizons between 20-40 inches.
DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained; runoff is medium; permeability is moderate.
USE AND VEGETATION: Most of this soil is cleared and used for row or hay crops. The remainder is in woodlands which are dominated by northern red oak and Virginia pine.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Culpeper Basin of Virginia, and possibly the southwestern portion of the Gettysburg Basin of Pennsylvania. The series is of moderate extent.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Morgantown, West Virginia
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Prince William County, Virginia, 1985
REMARKS: Laboratory data for the typifying pedon is available from the Virginia Tech Soil Survey Lab. Panorama soils were formerly mapped as either Bucks, Penn, or Birdsboro soils. Birdsboro soils are on stream terraces and alluvial fans, may be subject to flooding, and have less than 35 percent base saturation in the chemical control section. Bucks soils have less than 35 percent base saturation in the chemical control section and bedrock from 40 to 60 inches. Penn soils have bedrock between 20 and 40 inches and have more rock fragments.
REVISED = 2/18/2004, MAV added active ce activity class. Also, removed periglacial statements and the required discontinuity.