LOCATION DEKALB PA+GA KY MD NY OH VA WVEstablished Series
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Loamy-skeletal, siliceous, active, mesic Typic Dystrudepts
TYPICAL PEDON: Dekalb cobbly sandy loam in a wooded area of Hazleton and Dekalb soils, 25 to 75 percent slopes, extremely stony on an east facing slope at 1700 feet elevation. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.)
Oi--0 to 1 inches; slightly decomposed leaves and twigs.
Oe--1 to 3 inches; moderately decomposed mat of roots and leaves.
A--3 to 5 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) very cobbly sandy loam; weak fine granular structure; loose, nonsticky, nonplastic; many fine and medium roots; 40 percent angular sandstone cobbles and channers; very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.(1 to 8 inches thick)
E--5 to 9 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) cobbly sandy loam; weak fine granular structure; friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; many medium and fine roots; 30 percent angular sandstone cobbles and channers; very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.(0 to 7 inches thick)
Bw1--9 to 20 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) cobbly sandy loam; weak fine and medium subangular blocky structure; friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; common medium and fine roots; 35 percent angular sandstone cobbles and channers; very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
Bw2--20 to 30 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) very cobbly sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; common fine roots; 50 percent angular sandstone cobbles and channers; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. (15 to 30 inches thick)
C--30 to 34 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) extremely cobbly sandy loam; single grained; loose, nonsticky, nonplastic; few fine roots; 90 percent angular sandstone cobbles and channers; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. (0 to 10 inches thick)
R--34 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) and gray (10YR 5/1) slightly weathered sandstone bedrock; 4 to 40 inches between fractures with minimal displacement; bedrock inclination 5 to 30 degrees. Excavation difficulty, extremely high. Excavation via pick is nearly impossible. Backhoe excavation by a 50-80 hp tractor cannot be made in a reasonable time.
TYPE LOCATION: Fulton County, Pennsylvania; in Licking Creek Township, 0.9 miles north of the intersection of US 30 and Pennsylvania Township route T428, 1000 feet west of T428; USGS Hustontown topographic quadrangle; lat. 40 degrees 1 minutes 32 seconds N. and long. 78 degrees 6 minutes 47 seconds W.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Solum thickness and depth to bedrock range from 20 to 40 inches. Flat, subangular or angular, sandstone fragments, 1 to 10 inches across increase with depth and range from 10 to 60 percent in individual horizons of the solum and from 50 to 90 percent or more in the C horizon. The amount of rock fragments typically increases with depth. Weighted average rock fragment content ranges from 35 to 75 percent in the particle-size control section. Cobbly, channery, and very stony phases are common. Reaction ranges from extremely through strongly acid where unlimed. Illite, kaolinite, and vermiculite are common clay minerals.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. If cultivated, an Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4, and chroma of 2 to 4. It is loam fine sandy loam or sandy loam. Structure is weak very fine or fine granular.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 1 to 4. Texture and structure are similar to the A horizon.
Some pedons have a BA horizon with hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 3 or 4. It is loam, sandy loam, or fine sandy loam.
The B horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 4 to 8, and chroma of 4 to 8. It is loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy loam. Average clay content typically is between 6 to 15 percent but ranges up to 18 percent in the particle-size control section. Structure is weak to moderate, fine or coarse subangular blocky.
The BC horizon, where present, has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 5 to 8 and chroma of 4 to 8. It is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or loam in the fine- earth fraction.
The C horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. Texture is sandy loam or loamy sand in the fine-earth fraction. Bedrock is gray to brown sandstone of varying hardness and is commonly fractured without displacement.
COMPETING SERIES: The Hazleton and Wallen soils are in the same family. Hazleton soils are deeper than 40 inches to bedrock. Wallen soils allow more silt textures in the solum.
The Hailey, Lehew and soils are in related families. Hailey soils formed in residuum from cherty limestone. Lehew soils have hue of 5YR or redder in the B horizon. Marbleyard soils have rock fragments dominantly of quartzite and metasandstone.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Dekalb soils are on nearly level to very steep, uplands and ridges. Slopes are usually convex with gradients of 0 to 80 percent. The regolith weathered from gray and brown acid sandstone in places interbedded with shale and graywacke. The climate is humid temperate with mean annual rainfall of 36 to 60 inches and mean annual air temperature of 47 to 59 degrees F. The growing season ranges from 110 to 180 days.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the competing Hazleton along with the Buchanan, Clymer, Cookport, Ernest, Gilpin, Laidig, and Ramsey series. Buchanan, Cookport, Ernest, and Laidig soils have fragipans. Clymer and Gilpin soils have argillic horizons. Ramsey soils have bedrock within 20 inches.
DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained to somewhat excessively drained. The potential for surface runoff is negligible to high. Permeability is rapid.
USE AND VEGETATION: Most Dekalb soils are in forests of mixed oaks, maple, and some white pine and hemlock. Smaller areas have been cleared for cultivation and pasture.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Southern New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Ohio, West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Georgia. The series is of large extent.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Morgantown, West Virginia
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Fort Payne Area, Alabama, 1903.
REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
1. Ochric epipedon - the zone from the surface of the soil to a depth of about 9 inches (A and E horizon).
2. Cambic horizon - the zone from 9 to 30 inches (Bw horizon).
The Type location was changed from Clinton County, Pennsylvania to Fulton County, Pennsylvania.
ADDITIONAL DATA: Data from characterization sample S58Pa-18-6 were used as a basis for this description.