LOCATION DOVER              NY
Established Series
Rev. MGC


The Dover series consists of deep, well drained soils on uplands. They are nearly level to moderately steep and formed in glacial till. Dover soils typically have very dark brown and dark brown gravelly loam and fine sandy loam, reddish brown gravelly fine sandy loam B horizons, and grayish brown gravelly sandy loam C horizons.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Coarse-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Eutrudepts

TYPICAL PEDON: Dover gravelly loam - forested, stony (Colors refer to moist broken soil.)

A11--0 to 3 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) gravelly loam; strong fine granular structure; very friable; many roots; porous; 20 percent stones and gravel; medium acid; clear wavy boundary. (0 to 6 inches thick)

A12--3 to 7 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) gravelly fine sandy loam; moderate medium granular structure; very friable; many roots; porous; 20 percent stones and gravel; medium acid; clear wavy boundary. (3 to 8 inches thick)

B21--7 to 20 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/4) gravelly fine sandy loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable common roots; porous; 25 percent stones and gravel; slightly acid in the upper 6 inches, neutral below 13 inches; gradual wavy boundary. (6 to 18 inches thick)

B22--20 to 28 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/3) gravelly fine sandy loam; very weak medium subangular blocky structure; very friable; plentiful roots; porous; 25 percent stones and gravel; neutral, calcareous in spots having calcite crystals; clear wavy boundary. (0 to 12 inches thick)

C--28 to 60 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) very gravelly sandy loam; massive; firm; few roots; few pores; 40 percent stones and gravel; white to gray (10YR 8/1-6/1) calcite predominates among coarse fragments and sand; calcareous.

TYPE LOCATION: Lewis County, New York; Town of Diana, 3/8 mile east of Bullhead Pond, 50 feet east of trail which crosses New York Central Railroad 1/4 mile northwest of site.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Thickness of solum ranges from 16 to 36 inches; the depth to carbonates is the same or slightly less. Depth to bedrock is more than 40 inches and normally more than 60 inches. Rock fragments range from 3 to 35 percent throughout the soil with individual layers ranging up to 45 percent. The soil is medium acid to neutral in the A horizon, slightly acid to mildly alkaline in the B horizon, and mildly or moderately alkaline in the C horizon. Clay content of the control section ranges from 5 to 18 percent and sands coarser than very fine are more than 30 percent of the section.

The Ap horizon has hues of 7.5YR or 10YR, values of 2 to 4 and chroma of 2 or 3. It ranges from sandy loam to silt loam in the fine earth fraction. It has weak to moderate structure.

The B horizons have hues of 2.5YR to 7.5YR, values of 3 through 5, and chromas of 3 to 6; at least one subhorizon is 2.5YR or 5YR. The B horzons are sandy loam, fine sandy loam or loam in the fine earth fraction. They have very weak or weak blocky to moderate granular structure, and are friable to very friable.

C horizons have hues of 7.5YR to 2.5Y, values of 4 through 7, and chromas of 2 through 6. They are massive or have moderate platy structure and are friable to very firm. They are sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or loam in the fine earth fraction.

COMPETING SERIES: These are the Galway, Grenville, Lenox, Nellis, Pequea, and Salter series in the same family. Galway soils have bedrock at depths of less than 40 inches. Grenville soils are high in dolomite. Lenox soils have hues of 2.5Y or 5Y in the B horizon. Nellis, Pequea, and Salter sols have hues of 7.5YR or yellower throughout the B horizon.

The Amenia, Benson, Farmington, Hogansburg, Pittsfield, and Stockbridge series are similar soils in related families. Amenia and Hogansburg soils have mottles with chromas of 2 or less wihtin a depth of 24 inches. Benson and Farmington soils have a lithic contact within a depth of 20 inches. Pittsfield and Stockbridge soils lack carbonates within a depth of 40 inches.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Dover soils are nearly level to steep soils on till plains where the drift is high in crystalline limestone or marble. Slopes range from 0 to 25 percent in gradient. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 30 to 45 inches; mean annual air temperature, from 44 degrees to 50 degrees F.; and mean growing season, from 125 to 180 days.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Amenia, Bonaparte, Massena, and Sun soils. Amenia, Massena, and Sun soils are wetter associates. Bonaparte soils are on glacial outwash from similar material.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained. Runoff is medium to rapid; internal drainage is medium; permeability is moderate in the solum and moderately slow or moderate in the substratum.

USE AND VEGETATION: A high proportion is stony and used for growing pasture or hay or is forested. Sugar maple, basswood, white ash, and similar hardwoods are dominant forest species. Corn and small grains are grown locally.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Valleys of the Adirondack fringe and locally in valleys of extreme eastern New York, Connecticut, and New Jersey. The series is inextensive to moderately extensive.


SERIES ESTABLISHED: Dutchess County, New York, 1907.

REMARKS: The definition given leaves unclassified a very stony loamy-skeletal soil which has been included among Dover map units. It also excludes a segment of former Dover soils which is frigid.

National Cooperative Soil Survey