LOCATION ELS                NE+KS SD
Established Series


The Els series consists of very deep, somewhat poorly drained soils that formed in mostly in eolian sands on interdunes on sandhills. Some areas formed in alluvial sands and on stream terraces on valleys. Slopes range from 0 to 3 percent. The mean annual precipitation is about 51 centimeters (20 inches), and the mean annual temperature is about 9 degrees C (48 degrees F) at the type location.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Mixed, mesic Aquic Ustipsamments

TYPICAL PEDON: Els fine sand on a swale in a native meadow with a slope of 1 percent from a map unit of Els-Tryon complex, 0 to 3 percent slopes. When described, the soil was moist to 76 centimeters (30 inches) and wet below. (Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise stated.)

A--0 to 15 centimeters (0 to 6 inches); dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine sand, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; weak fine granular structure; soft, very friable; many very fine and fine roots throughout; neutral; clear wavy boundary. [8 to 23 centimeters (3 to 9 inches) thick]

AC--15 to 46 centimeters (6 to 18 inches); brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; single grain; loose; common very fine and fine roots throughout; neutral; clear wavy boundary. [0 to 46 centimeters (0 to 18 inches) thick]

Cg1--46 to 76 centimeters (18 to 30 inches); light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine sand, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) moist; many fine and medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) iron masses in the matrix; single grain; loose; few very fine and fine roots throughout; slightly alkaline; clear wavy boundary.

Cg2--76 to 200 centimeters (30 to 79 inches); light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand, light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) moist; single grain; loose; few very fine roots throughout; slightly alkaline.

TYPE LOCATION: Cherry County, Nebraska; about 14.5 kilometers (9 miles) north and 14.5 kilometers (9 miles) west of Brownlee; 183 meter (600 feet) north and 366 meters (1,200 feet) east of the southwest corner of section 10, T. 28 N., R.30 W. Brownlee Flats topographic quadrangle; latitude 42 degrees, 19 minutes, 24 seconds North and longitude 100 degrees, 41 minutes, 14 seconds West.

Soil moisture: ustic
Soil temperature: mesic
Depth to secondary carbonates: can be below 51 centimeters (20 inches)
Depth to redoximorphic features: 46 to 91 centimeters (18 to 36 inches)
Depth to endosaturation: 46 to 91 centimeters (18 to 36 inches)
Particle-size control section (weighted average):
Clay content: 1 to 10 percent
Sand content: 78 to 99 percent

A horizon:
Hue: 10YR
Value: 4 or 5 dry, 2 to 4 moist
Chroma: 1 or 2
Texture: sand, fine sand, loamy sand and loamy fine sand
Reaction: moderately acid to neutral

AC horizon:
Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
Value: 5 or 6 dry, 4 or 5 moist
Chroma: 1 to 3
Texture: sand, fine sand, loamy sand, and loamy fine sand
Reaction: slightly acid or neutral

C horizon:
Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
Value: 5 to 8 dry, 4 to 7 moist
Chroma: 2 or 3
Texture: sand, fine sand, loamy sand and loamy fine sand
Some pedons have thin layers of darker colored, finer textured, or gravelly material below a depth of 102 centimeters (40 inches).
Reaction: slightly acid to slightly alkaline

COMPETING SERIES: This is the Dillwyn series.
Dillwyn soils have a higher mean annual soil and air temperature.

Parent material: mostly eolian sands when on interdunes on sandhills, some alluvial sands when on stream terraces on valleys
Landscape: mostly sandhills, some on stream valleys
Landform: mostly swales and hummocks (when in complex with more poorly drained soils) on interdunes, some on stream terraces
Slope: 0 to 3 percent
Elevation: 457 to 1066 meters (1500 to 3500 feet)
Mean annual precipitation: 41 to 66 centimeters (16 to 26 inches)
Mean annual air temperature: 8 to 11 degrees C. (46 to 52 degrees F.)
Frost Free Days: 120 to 160

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Ipage, Marlake, Tryon, and Valentine soils.
Ipage soils are higher on hummocks on interdunes and are moderately well drained having a seasonal zone of saturation or aquic conditions beginning at 91 centimeters (36 inches).
Marlake soils are in depressions on interdunes and are very poorly drained having a seasonal zone of saturation or aquic conditions beginning at the surface and having ponding up to 61 centimeters (24 inches).
Tryon soils are lower in swales on interdunes and are poorly and very poorly drained having a seasonal zone of saturation or aquic conditions beginning at the surface.
Valentine soils are on higher hummocks and dunes and are excessively drained having no seasonal zone of saturation or aquic conditions.

Drainage: somewhat poorly drained
Runoff: negligible
Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity: very high

USE AND VEGETATION: The major uses are livestock grazing and haying. A few areas are cultivated and irrigated. Crops are mainly alfalfa, corn, grain sorghum, wheat, and forages. The rangeland native plant community for the subirrigated ecological site (R065XY029NE) is principally big bluestem, little bluestem, yellow Indiangrass, and switchgrass.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: In and near the Sandhills of Nebraska and South Dakota (LRR G, MLRA 65) with minor distribution in Colorado, and Kansas. The series is of large extent.

SERIES ESTABLISHED: Logan County, Nebraska, 1969.

REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons:
Aquic soil conditions: 46to 200 centimeters (18 to 79 inches) (Cg1, Cg2 horizons)
The Els series represents non mollic soils formerly mapped as Elsmere.
A calcareous phase of the Els series is recognized. Reaction is slightly alkaline or moderately alkaline. Typically, carbonates are present at a depth of less than 51 centimeters (20 inches).
3/2007 RRH: A stream terrace phase or new series will need to be established for the Els soils located on non-flooded stream terraces of valleys.
3/2007 RRH: Introductory Paragraph: revised landform/landscape; Typical Pedon: changed C horizon to Cg1 and Cg horizon to Cg2. Changed chroma of Cg1 horizon to 2 based on original pedon description notes. Range in Characteristics: revised; Geographic Setting: revised; Geographically Associated Soils: revised, deleted Dunday and Gannett soils as these soils do not occur at the type location, added Marlake soils as these soils occur at the type location; Use and Vegetation: revised

ADDITIONAL DATA: Data for pedon IDs 87NE031102 and 91NE031025 in Cherry County, Nebraska are available from the National Soil Survey Center, Soil Survey Laboratory and the Nebraska Department of Roads. Additional Soil Survey Laboratory data is available for Blaine, Holt, Morrill, Rock, and Sheridan Counties in Nebraska. Pedon ID 85NE031081 represents the Typical Pedon and is in NASIS.

National Cooperative Soil Survey