LOCATION ELSAH IL+AR MO OKEstablished Series
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Loamy-skeletal, mixed, superactive, nonacid, mesic Typic Udifluvents
TYPICAL PEDON: Elsah silt loam - in a nearly level pasture with widely scattered trees. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)
A--0 to 10 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam, pale brown (10YR 6/3) dry; weak medium granular structure; friable; about 2 percent chert gravel; slightly acid, gradual wavy boundary. (6 to 18 inches thick)
C1--10 to 22 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) gravelly silt loam; massive; friable; about 35 percent chert gravel; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary. (0 to 24 inches thick)
C2--22 to 32 inches; brown (7.5YR 4/4) gravelly loam; massive; very friable; about 50 percent coarse fragments of chert (mostly gravel with a few cobbles); slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
C3--32 to 60 inches; brown (7.5YR 4/4) very gravelly loam; single grain; loose; about 75 percent coarse fragments of chert (mostly gravel with a few cobbles); slightly acid.
TYPE LOCATION: Alexander County, Illinois; about 4 miles east of Thebes on the north side of Brownsville Creek; about 60 feet west and 2025 feet north of the SE corner of sec. 12, T. 15 S., R. 3 W.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: The solum consists of only the A horizon in most pedons, or the A horizon plus an AC horizon in some pedons. It ranges from 6 to 18 inches in thickness. The 10 to 40 inch control section ranges from 8 to 18 percent clay. The content of organic carbon decreases irregularly with increasing depth, and many pedons are stratified in particle-size as well. The rock fragments are dominantly angular chert pebbles or cobbles. In some places the fragments are sub-rounded. Some limestone channers are included among the chert fragments.
The A horizon typically has hue of 10YR, and less commonly of 7.5YR; value of 3 to 5, and chroma of 2 to 4. Pedons that have value of 3 have dry value of 6, or have a surface layer 6 inches or less in thickness. The A horizon typically is silt loam, loam, gravelly silt loam, or gravelly loam. Some pedons are very gravelly loam or very gravelly silt loam. The A horizon typically contains from 0 to about 20 percent chert gravel but some pedons contain as much as 60 percent. It has weak, fine or medium granular structure and is friable or very friable. It is medium acid to neutral.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 3 to 6. The upper part commonly is gravelly silt loam or gravelly loam, but some pedons are silt loam or loam, and some are very gravelly or cobbly analogs of those textures. They typically contain between 5 and 35 percent coarse fragments of chert, but some pedons contain as much as 50 percent. The lower part is gravelly loam, gravelly silt loam, or very gravelly, extremely gravelly, cobbly very cobbly, or extremely cobbly analogs of those textures. Some pedons contain strata or lenses of sand, loamy sand, or sandy loam, with or without coarse fragments. The lower part of the C horizon contains from 35 to 85 percent coarse fragments. Reaction is medium acid to neutral throughout.
COMPETING SERIES: This is the Beavercreek series. Series in similar families are the Burnside, Gladden, Hartshorn, and Midco soils. Beavercreek soils have an active CEC/clay ratio, have coarse fragments dominated by sandstone and limestone cobbles, and contain more sand and less silt in the fine-earth fraction. Burnside soils are strongly acid or very strongly acid in the control section and have coarse fragments dominated by sandstone channers and flagstones. Gladden soils average less than 35 percent coarse fragments, have a cambic horizon, and are strongly acid or very strongly acid in the control section. Hartshorn soils are fine-loamy over sandy or sandy-skeletal and have a cambic horizon.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Elsah soils are on flood plains along creeks and small streams that drain highly dissected uplands that contain chert or cherty limestone. Slopes typically are about 1 to 2 percent and range from 0 to 5 percent. Elsah soils formed in silt loam or loam alluvium that contains angular gravel or cobbles of chert rock that typically increases in content with increasing depth. Mean annual temperature is about 54 degrees to 57 degrees F, and mean annual precipitation is about 36 to 48 inches.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Haymond soils and the Gladden soils on flood plains and the Alford, Clarksville, and Goss soils on the adjacent upland slopes. Haymond soils are coarse silty and are adjacent in many places on similar parts of flood plains or in areas farther from the stream channel in the wider parts of the valleys. Gladden soils are adjacent in some places on similar parts of the flood plain. Alford soils formed in loess on uplands and have an argillic horizon. Clarksville and Goss soils formed in residuum weathered from cherty limestone.
DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained and somewhat excessively drained. Runoff is low to medium. Permeability is moderate in the upper part and moderately rapid or rapid in the lower part.
USE AND VEGETATION: Many of the wider flood plains and accessible areas are cultivated. Corn, soybeans, and specialty crops are grown. Other areas are used for pasture or woodland. Native vegetation was hardwood trees.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas. The extent is moderate.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Indianapolis, Indiana
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Jersey County, Illinois, 1957.