LOCATION FILLMORE                NE

Established Series
Rev. LGR RRZ DJK
06/2012

FILLMORE SERIES


The Fillmore series consists of very deep, somewhat poorly drained soils that formed in loess. Fillmore soils are in closed depressions on loess uplands and stream terraces in the Central Loess Plains, MLRA 75. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 686 millimeters (27 inches) and mean annual temperature is about 11 degrees C (52 degrees F).

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine, smectitic, mesic Vertic Argialbolls

TYPICAL PEDON: Fillmore silt loam, on a concave, less than 1 percent slope in native rangeland at an elevation of 541 meters (1775 feet). (Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise stated.)

A--0 to 23 centimeters (0 to 9 inches); gray (10YR 5/1) silt loam, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) moist; weak medium subangular blocky structure parting to weak medium granular; slightly hard, friable, slightly acid; abrupt smooth boundary. (18 to 43 centimeters) 7 to 17 inches thick)

E--23 to 33 centimeters (9 to 13 inches); gray (10YR 6/1) silt loam, gray (10YR 5/1) moist; weak medium platy structure parting to weak fine granular; soft, friable; slightly acid; few hard 1 to 2 mm (ferro-manganese) pellets; abrupt smooth boundary. (8 to 31 centimeters) 3 to 12 inches thick)

Bt1--33 to 61 centimeters (13 to 24 inches); gray (10YR 5/1) silty clay, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) moist; strong coarse and medium angular blocky structure; very hard, very firm; shiny faces on most peds; many hard 1 to 2 mm (ferro-manganese) pellets; neutral; clear smooth boundary.

Bt2--61 to 81 centimeters (24 to 32 inches); grayish brown (10YR 5/2) silty clay, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; strong coarse and medium angular blocky structure; very hard, very firm; shiny faces on most peds; slightly alkaline; clear smooth boundary. (Combined thickness of Bt horizons is (38 to 127 centimeters) 15 to 50 inches.)

BC--81 to 112 centimeters (32 to 44 inches); grayish brown (10YR 5/2) silty clay loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; moderate coarse and medium subangular blocky structure; hard, firm; slightly alkaline; gradual smooth boundary. (13 to 38 centimeters) 5 to 15 inches thick)

C--112 to 200 centimeters (44 to 80 inches); grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) silty clay loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist; weak coarse prismatic structure parting to weak medium subangular blocky; slightly hard, friable; slight effervescence; moderately alkaline.

TYPE LOCATION: Clay County, Nebraska; about 3 kilometers (2 miles) south of Clay Center; located about 729 meters (2390 feet) west and 84 meters (275 feet) north of the southeast corner, sec. 12, T. 6 N., R. 7 W.; Fairfield USGS quadrangle; latitude 40 degrees 29 minutes 47.4 seconds N. and longitude 98 degrees 3 minutes 36.0 seconds W., NAD83.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS:
Soil Moisture: Saturated to the surface November to March. April through July intermittently dry in surface layer, but near saturation in lower soil horizons. Driest in August through October.
Mollic epipedon thickness: 51 to over 152 centimeters (20 to 60 inches)
Depth to argillic horizon: 15 to 61 centimeters (6 to 24 inches)
Depth to secondary carbonates: 76 centimeters (30 inches) to more than 152 centimeters (60 inches)
Depth to redoximorphic features: Indicators are generally present in the soil, but masked by the very dark color of the organic matter. Common, fine, distinct (10YR 4/4) oxidized zones exist around root channels in the upper Bt horizon. Few to common, fine to coarse, black (10YR 2/1) round (shot-like), hard, Iron/Manganese concretions or nodules, will also be present in the Bt horizon. Grayish depletions within the matrix of peds do occur and a sometimes visible in the lower B horizon directly below the dark organic colors.
Depth to episaturation: 15 centimeters (6 inches) above the surface to about 61 centimeters (24 inches) below the surface.

Particle-size control section (weighted average):
Clay content: 42 to 50 percent
Sand content: 3 to 10 percent

A horizon:
Hue: 10YR
Value: 4 or 5 dry, 2 or 3 moist
Chroma: 1 or 2 dry or moist
Textures: silt loam or silty clay loam
Clay content: 18 to 35 percent
Sand content: 5 to 12 percent
Reaction: strongly acid to slightly acid

E horizon:
Hue of 10YR
Value: 5 to 7 dry, 4 to 6 moist
Chroma: 1 dry or moist
Texture: silt loam
Clay content: 12 to 22 percent
Sand content: 6 to 14 percent
Reaction: strongly acid to slightly acid
Comment: In farmed areas, the E horizon has generally been destroyed by tillage machinery. Bt and surface horizon material is mixed with this E horizon.

Bt horizon:
Hue: 10YR, 5Y, 2.5Y, or N
Value: 3 to 6 dry, 2 to 5 moist
Chroma: 0 to 2 dry or moist
Texture: silty clay or silty clay loam
Clay Content: 38 to 50 percent
Sand content: 3 to 10 percent
Reaction: moderately acid to slightly alkaline.

BC horizon:
Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
Value: 4 to 6 dry, 3 to 5 moist
Chroma: 1 to 3 dry or moist
Texture: silty clay loam or silty clay
Clay content: 32 to 44 percent
Sand content: 4 to 8 percent
Reaction: neutral to moderately alkaline

C horizon:
Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
Value: 5 to 7 dry, 4 to 6 moist
Chroma: 2 to 4 dry or moist
Texture: silt loam or silty clay loam
Clay content: 24 to 38 percent
Sand content: 4 to 8 percent
Reaction: neutral to moderately alkaline

COMPETING SERIES: These are the Barbert, Crestmeade, Edina, Filbert, Massie, Scott, Sturges and Triplett soils.
Barbert soils allow for rock fragments in the series control section.
Crestmeade, Triplett and Sturges soils are in a warmer and wetter climate and do not pond water on the surface.
Triplett soils have more than 10% sand in the lower part of the particle size control section.
Edina soils are poorly or very poorly drained.
Filbert soils are dry in all parts of the soil moisture control section for 80 out of the 120 days following the summer solstice in 2 years out of 10.
Massie soils are saturated in the soil moisture control section and pond water for more than 45 consecutive days during the growing season.
Scott soils are saturated in the soil moisture control section for more than 30 consecutive days during the growing season and pond water from 7 to about 45 consecutive days. They have an A horizon less than 7 inches thick.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING:
Parent material: loess
Landform: closed depressions on loess uplands
Slope: 0 to 2 percent
Elevation: 375 to 670 meters (1230 to 2200 feet)
Mean annual temperature: 9 to 12 degrees C (49 to 53 degrees F)
Mean annual precipitation: 508 to 889 millimeters (20 to 35 inches)
Frost-free period: 137 to 173 days

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Butler, Crete, Hastings, Massie, and Scott soils.
Butler soils are on higher flat or slightly concave positions in the landscape and do not have an albic horizon.
Massie and Scott soils occur in lower positions of closed depressions and are ponded for long or very long duration.
Crete and Hastings soils are on interfluves and hillslopes of loess uplands, are moderately well or well drained, and lack an albic horizon.

DRAINAGE AND SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY:
Drainage: Somewhat poorly drained
Saturated hydraulic conductivity: low
Ponding: typically ponds water for brief durations (2 to 7 days) during the growing season but sometimes may extend to long durations (7 to 30 days). Most ponding occurs between March through July.
Saturation: has a perched seasonal high water table that ranges from 15 centimeters (6 inches) above the soil surface to about 61 centimeters (24 inches) below.

USE AND VEGETATION: Most areas are cultivated.
The main crops are corn, soybeans, sorghum, and wheat.
The native vegetation is short and mid-prairie grasses.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Central and eastern Nebraska. Land Resource Regions H, G, and M; MLRAs 71, 75, 106, 102C, 65 and 66. The series is of large extent.

MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Denver, Colorado

SERIES ESTABLISHED: Adams County, Nebraska, 1923.

REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
Mollic epipedon: The zone from 0 to 81 centimeters (0 to 32 inches) (A, E, Bt1, Bt2 horizons)
Albic horizon: The zone from 23 to 33 centimeters (9 to 13 inches) (E horizon)
Argillic horizon:--The zone from 33 to 81 centimeters (13 to 32 inches) (Bt1, Bt2 horizons).
Linear Extensibility: Exceeds 6.0 between 0 and 100 cm.
Classification changed to agree with Filbert, Massie and Scott.

Terrace phases are recognized that have sand or coarse textured material below the loess cap at a depth of 3 to 10 meters (10 to 30 ft.).
A poorly drained, ponded phase is also recognized that has interpretations similar to the Scott series.

OSD Modification 6/2002RRZ
Dark shot as described the E horizons of Fillmore soil is questionable as a natural occurring event. This observation is probably due to tillage or drainage operations, which have destroyed or mixed some of the E horizon with Bt material containing the (shot-like) material. Possibly some freeze/thaw activities could move the concretions into the contact zone of the lower Bt horizon. The silty clay loam surface layer is due to farming or landscaping activities. Under natural conditions the surface layer is silt loam. Added redox information; added Sturges to competing series.

10/17/05 JCR
Changed format to semi-tab. Changed permeability to saturated hydraulic conductivity

12/2011 DJK
Changed mean annual precipitation from 23 inches to 27 inches.
Added in elevation for typical pedon.
Added quadrangle and latitude/longitude to type location.
Added mollic thickness and depth to argillic in RIC. Added in clay content and sand content for each horizon in RIC. For E horizon added value of 6 to moist color. For Bt horizon deleted 5Y an N from hue, added silty clay loam, deleted clay, and changed clay percent. BC horizon added silty clay.
Under geomorphic setting, added in closed depressions for landform and deleted stream terraces, entered in elevation range and frost-free days, and updated precipitation and temperature.
Under geographically associated soils, deleted Belfore, Holder, Holdrege, and Tomek and updated other soils.
Under Drainage and Kst, deleted runoff, changed flooding to ponding, added in ponding and saturation statement, and changed Ksat from very low to low. Added soybeans in for crops.
Added LRRs and MLRAs to distribution and extent, and change to large extent.
Added in additional data showing NSSL characterization pedons and typical pedon.

ADDITIONAL DATA: National Soil Survey Laboratory data is available for Pedon IDs 79NE059008, 86NE035001, 90NE155033, 90NE155033A, 90NE155033B, and 09NE035001. Pedon ID 1963NE035001 represents the Typical Pedon and is in NASIS.


National Cooperative Soil Survey
U.S.A.