LOCATION KLAPATCHE WAEstablished Series
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Sandy-skeletal, isotic Andic Humicryods
TYPICAL PEDON: Klapatche ashy loamy sand-forested. (Color is for moist soil unless otherwise stated. All textures are apparent field textures)
Oi--0 to 0.5 inches; slightly decomposed forest litter, needles, twigs, bark and moss. (0.5 to 3 inches thick)
Oa--0.5 to 2 inches; black (10YR 2/1) highly decomposed forest litter; common fine and very fine roots binding material together; abrupt smooth boundary. (0.5 to 3 inches thick)
E--2 to 5 inches; pinkish gray (7.5YR 6/2) ashy loamy sand (volcanic ash and pumice), white (7.5YR 8/1) dry; weak medium subangular blocky structure; soft, very friable, nonsticky and nonplastic; many very fine and fine and few medium roots; many fine interstitial pores; 5 percent pebbles; very strongly acid (pH 5.0); abrupt irregular boundary. (1 to 4 inches thick)
B/E--5 to 10 inches; variegated dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3), brown (7.5YR 4/4), and light gray (10YR 7/1) ashy loamy sand (volcanic ash and pumice); variegated reddish brown (5YR 4/4), reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/6), and light gray (10YR 7/1) dry; weak fine subangular blocky structure; soft, very friable, nonsticky and nonplastic; many very fine, common medium, and few coarse roots; many fine interstitial pores; 10 percent pebbles and hard cinders; moderately acid (pH 5.8); abrupt wavy boundary. (0 to 7 inches thick)
Bhs--10 to 14 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/6) and dark reddish brown (2.5YR 3/4) very gravelly ashy sandy loam, reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/6) dry; strong medium subangular blocky structure; hard, friable, slightly sticky, nonplastic, weakly smeary; common fine and few medium roots; common fine, random, tubular pores; 40 percent pebbles and hard cinders; moderately acid (pH 6.0); clear wavy boundary. (2 to 8 inches)
2BC--14 to 22 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) very gravelly loamy sand, light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) dry; weak medium subangular blocky structure; slightly hard, very friable, nonsticky and nonplastic; common very fine and fine roots; common fine, random, tubular pores; 10 percent cobbles, 35 percent pebbles; moderately acid (pH 6.0); clear smooth boundary. (6 to 12 inches thick)
2C--22 to 33 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) extremely cobbly sand; light gray (10YR 7/2) dry; massive; slightly hard, friable, nonsticky and nonplastic; many fine and medium interstitial pores; 25 percent pebbles, 40 percent cobbles; strongly acid (pH 5.4); gradual smooth boundary. (4 to 15 inches thick)
2Cr--33 to 40 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) highly weathered granodiorite; pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) dry; this material can be cut with a spade with difficulty and breaks to very gravelly coarse sand; 50 percent hard gravel, 10 percent hard cobbles; moderately acid (pH 6.0).
2R--40 inches; granodiorite.
TYPE LOCATION: Snoqualmie Pass Area, King County, Washington; on east side of Hansen Creek drainage, about 200 feet east of Forest Service Road number 2291.1; 1,000 feet south and 2,200 feet west of the northeast corner of sec. 22, T. 22 N., R. 10 E.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: The mean annual soil temperature is 41 to 46 degrees F. Depth to a paralithic contact is 20 to 40 inches. Hard consolidated bedrock is at a depth of about 30 to 40 inches. The bedrock is granitic rock, or low grade metamorphic rock mainly slate and phyllite. Hard rock fragments, including hard cinders, in the particle-size control section, average from 35 to 70 percent by volume. The mantle of volcanic ash is 7 to 14 inches thick and has an estimated moist bulk density of 0.60 to 1.00 g/cc, volcanic glass content of 30 to 60 percent, acid-oxalate extractable aluminum plus one-half of the acid-oxalate extractable iron of more than 2.0 percent, and 15-bar water retention of 5 to 12 percent for air dried samples.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 3 through 7 moist and 6 to 8 dry; and chroma of 0 through 2 moist or dry. It is moderately acid to very strongly acid.
The B/E horizon has colors like the Bhs and E horizons. The B/E horizon is absent in some pedons.
The Bhs horizon has hue of 2.5YR, 5YR, or 7.5YR, value of 3 through 5 moist and 4 through 6 dry, and chroma of 3 through 6 moist or dry. This horizon contains up to 35 percent by volume coarse volcanic ash. Texture is ashy loamy sand, ashy sandy loam, or ashy silt loam. It is 15 to 50 percent pebbles and hard cinders. Most pebbles in this horizon are less than 5 mm in diameter. It is moderately acid or strongly acid.
The 2BC horizon has color variegation in some pedons. Value is 4 through 7 moist and chroma is 2 through 6 moist and dry. Texture is very gravelly loamy sand, gravelly sandy loam, very cobbly loamy sand or extremely gravelly sand or very cobbly sand modified by from 15 to 50 percent pebbles and 5 to 30 percent cobbles. Some pedons are up to 25 percent pumice. It is moderately acid or strongly acid.
The 2C horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y; value of 4 to 7 moist and dry, and chroma of 1 through 4 dry and moist. The horizon is massive exhibiting some rock structure, or has weak, fine subangular blocky structure. The 2C horizon is 40 to 70 percent rock fragments. It is extremely cobbly sand, very cobbly sand, or extremely gravelly sand. Some pedons are up to 20 percent pumice. It is moderately acid or strongly acid.
COMPETING SERIES: There are no competing series.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Klapatche soils are on mountain ridge crests and side slopes at elevations of 2,200 to 5,600 feet. The lower limit of the elevation range being on northerly and easterly exposures and in cold air drainages. Slopes range from 8 to 90 percent. Klapatche soils formed in residuum and colluvium from granitic and low grade metamorphic rocks with a mantle of volcanic ash and pumice. The climate is maritime influenced with cold, wet winters, and cool, moist summers. The mean January temperature is about 27 degrees F; the mean July temperature is about 60 degrees F. Mean annual air temperature is about 42 degrees F. Average annual precipitation is about 70 to 110 inches, with a considerable portion of this being in the form of snow. Frost-free season is 70 to 90 days.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Altapeak, Haywire, Index, Kindy, Marblemount, Reggad, Serene, and Teneriffe soils. Altapeak, and Teneriffe soils are greater than 40 inches deep to a paralithic or lithic contact. Haywire and Kindy soils are loamy-skeletal. Index soils are deep. Marblemount and Teneriffe soils are frigid and are at lower elevations. Reggad soils lack a spodic horizon and are fragmental.
DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained, moderately rapid permeability, slow or medium runoff.
USE AND VEGETATION: Used for timber production, watershed, and wildlife habitat. Vegetation is western hemlock, Pacific silver fir, Douglas-fir, noble fir, and Alaska-cedar with an understory of Sitka alder, huckleberry, common beargrass, salal, longtube twinflower, bunchberry dogwood, prince's pine, and Oregon-grape.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: These soils are on the crest of the Cascade Mountains in King and Chelan Counties, Washington; MLRA 3. Series is of moderate extent.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Portland, Oregon
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Snoqualmie Pass Area, King County, Washington, 1986.
REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are an albic horizon from 2 to 5 inches, a spodic horizon from 5 to 22 inches that is mixed with albic material from 5 to 10 inches, a volcanic ash mantle from 2 to 14 inches, and a paralithic contact at 33 inches and a lithic contact at 40 inches.
ADDITIONAL DATA: NSSL pedon S79WA-033-005.