LOCATION LINDER IA+MNEstablished Series
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Coarse-loamy, mixed, superactive, mesic Aquic Hapludolls
TYPICAL PEDON: Linder loam with a slope of about 1 percent - cultivated. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)
Ap--0 to 7 inches; black (10YR 2/1) loam, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) dry; moderate fine and medium granular structure; friable; many roots; common clear quartz grains on faces of peds; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.
A--7 to 13 inches; black (10YR 2/1), very dark brown (10YR 2/2), and very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loam; mixed color very dark gray (10YR 3/1), dark gray (10YR 4/1) dry; weak fine and medium subangular blocky structure parting to moderate fine and medium granular; friable; some light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) mixing by worms in lower part; slightly alkaline; clear smooth boundary. (Combined thickness of the A horizons is 10 to 24 inches.)
Bw1--13 to 20 inches; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) sandy loam; weak fine and medium subangular blocky structure parting to moderate fine and medium granular; friable; some light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) mixing by worms; slightly alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
Bw2--20 to 24 inches; olive brown (2.5Y 4/3) sandy loam; common fine prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6 and 5/8) and many medium distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) Fe concentrations; weak fine and medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) coatings on faces of peds; few coarse and very coarse sand grains and fine gravel particles that appear to be coated with clay; slightly alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. (Combined thickness of the Bw horizon is 9 to 20 inches.)
2C1--24 to 28 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) and yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) gravelly loamy sand; single grain; loose; few calcium carbonate accumulations in soft rounded masses and bridging between sand grains; about 20 percent gravel; strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. (3 to 10 inches thick)
2C2--28 to 60 inches; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4), dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4), and yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) gravelly sand; single grain; loose; about 20 percent gravel; strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline.
TYPE LOCATION: Palo Alto County, Iowa; about 1 1/2 miles north and 1 mile east of Cylinder; 40 feet east and 2,530 feet north of the center of sec. 29, T. 96 N., R. 31 W.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: The thickness of the loamy mantle and depth to free carbonates is 24 to 40 inches. The A and B horizons typically range from slightly acid to slightly alkaline, but pedons that are moderately acid in the A horizon are not excluded.
The rock fragment content by volume ranges from 0 to 10 percent in the loamy mantle and 5 to 30 percent in the substratum.
The Ap or A horizon has hue of 10YR or neutral, value of 2 or 3 and chroma of 0 to 2. It is loam or sandy loam.
The Bw horizon has hue of 2.5Y, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 2 or 3. Within 6 inches of the base of the mollic epipedon, hue of 10YR with chroma of 3 accompanied by low chroma mottles are in some pedons. The Bw horizon is sandy loam; but in some pedons a BC horizon of loamy sand or sand with some gravel is present. The average clay content of the control section above the sand and gravel is 10 to 18 percent.
The 2C horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 3 to 5, and chroma of 2 to 6. The 2C horizon is loamy sand, sand, or coarse sand with 5 to 30 percent gravel, but subhorizons having as much as 50 percent gravel or as little as no gravel are present in some pedons. The 2C horizon is slightly or moderately alkaline and calcareous except for being leached for a few inches in the upper part in some pedons. The sandy and gravelly material ranges from a few to many feet thick. It overlies glacial till or finer-textured alluvium.
COMPETING SERIES: These are the Elrin, Grovecity, Hoopeston, Lawville (T), Wesley, and Yahara soils. Elrin soils do not have carbonates above 48 inches. Grovecity soils formed in glacial till and have loamy textures in the lower half of the series control section. Hoopeston and Yahara soils do not have gravel within the control section. Lawville soils do not have gravel above a depth of 54 inches. Wesley soils have loamy and silty lacustrine material in the lower third of the series control section.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: The Linder soils are on nearly level to gently undulating glacial outwash plains, till plains and stream terraces. Slopes commonly are nearly plane or slightly convex, but some are slightly concave. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. These soils formed in thin loamy glacial outwash or alluvium which is underlain by calcareous sand and gravel. Mean annual temperature ranges from 45 to 48 degrees F. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 26 to 32 inches. Frost free days range from 145 to 170. Elevations above sea level range from 800 to 1500 feet.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Biscay, Cylinder, Dickinson, Estherville, Hanska, and Wadena series. Estherville soils and Hanska soils are the most common associates. The poorly drained Biscay and Hanska soils are on lower-lying terrain. Cylinder soils are on landscapes similar to the Linder soils. The well drained Dickinson and Wadena soils and somewhat excessively drained Estherville soils are on higher-lying terrain.
DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Somewhat poorly drained. Surface runoff is low. Permeability is moderate or moderately rapid in the upper part and very rapid in the substratum. The apparent water table is at a depth of 2.0 to 4.0 feet during Nov. to July in most years.
USE AND VEGETATION: Corn, soybeans, small grain, and legume hay are the major crops. Native vegetation was tall prairie grasses.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Northwestern Iowa and southern Minnesota. The series is inextensive.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: St. Paul, Minnesota
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Palo Alto County, Iowa, 1973.
REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are: mollic epipedon - zone from the surface to a depth of approximately 13 inches (Ap and A horizons); cambic horizon - zone from approximately 13 to 24 inches (Bw1 and Bw2 horizons); aquic subgroup - chroma of 2 with hue of 2.5Y below mollic epipedon; udic moisture regime.