LOCATION MT. ZION MD+PA VAEstablished Series
TAXONOMIC CLASS: coarse-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Oxyaquic Hapludalfs
TYPICAL PEDON: Mt. Zion gravelly silt loam on an east facing aspect at a slope of 5 percent, under mixed hardwood forest. The elevation is 1520 feet at the site. (Colors are for moist soil).
Oi--0 to 0.5 inches; partially decomposed leaf and twig matter.
Apl--0.5 to 2 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) gravelly silt loam; weak thin platy structure parting to moderate fine granular; very friable; many fine roots, common medium and few coarse roots; 15 percent gravel; moderately acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
Ap2--2 to 6 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) gravelly silt loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure parting to moderate fine granular; very friable; many fine, common medium and coarse roots; 15 percent gravel; strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary. (Combined A horizon thickness is 2 to 6 inches.)
BE--6 to 12 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) gravelly silt loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; many fine and common medium roots; common fine and few medium vesicular and tubular pores; few fine faint dark brown (10YR 3/3) organic coats in root channels and pores; 15 percent gravel; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Btl--12 to 19 inches; dark yellowish brown 10YR 4/6) loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine and medium roots; many fine, vesicular and tubular pores, and few medium tubular pores; common medium faint yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silt coatings on faces of peds; 10 percent gravel, and 3 percent cobbles; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Bt2--19 to 31 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/6) gravelly loam; common fine and medium distinct reddish brown (2.5YR 5/4) mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky structure parting to moderate medium subangular blocky; friable; common fine roots in cracks between peds; common fine vesicular and tubular pores, and common medium vesicular pores; many fine distinct strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) silt coatings on faces of peds; 20 percent gravel and 2 percent cobbles,; moderately acid; clear wavy boundary.
Bt3--31 to 48 inches; yellowish red (5YR 4/6) gravelly silt loam; weak coarse prismatic structure parting to weak thin platy; firm; common fine roots in cracks and along faces of peds; common medium vesicular and tubular pores; few medium prominent light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4) iron depletions; many fine and medium distinct black (5YR 2/1) iron-manganese stains in pores and on faces of peds; common fine distinct strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) silt coatings on faces of peds and lining pores; 20 percent gravel, 3 percent cobbles, and 1 percent stones; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary. (Combined Bt thickness is 10 to 50 inches)
BC--48 to 69 inches, strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) very gravelly loam; common fine and medium prominent light reddish brown (2.5YR 6/4) lithochromic mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots in cracks; many fine tubular and few fine vesicular pores; common medium light reddish brown (5YR 6/4) iron depletions, and many fine and medium, distinct black (5YR 2.5/1) iron-manganese stains on faces of peds and in pores; 20 percent channers, 10 percent flagstones, 5 percent cobbles, and 5 percent gravel; slightly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
R--69 inches, unweathered greenstone bedrock.
TYPE LOCATION: Frederick County, Maryland; in a woodlot 3,700 ft. east of Mt. Zion Church Rd. and its intersection with Catoctin Park Trail across from Mt. Zion Church; 30 feet south east of trail. Latitude 39 degrees, 40 minutes, 29 seconds North; Longitude 77 degrees, 29 minutes, 9 seconds West, NAD.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Solum thickness ranges from 30 to 70 inches. Bedrock depth is greater than 5 feet. Rock fragments range from 0 to 20 percent in the surface and upper subsoil, and from 15 to 45 percent in the lower subsoil and substratum. Soil reaction ranges from strongly acid to slightly acid.
The A horizon has a hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 2 to 5, and chroma of 1 to 4. The texture of the fine earth-fraction is silt loam or loam.
The BE horizon has a hue of 7.5YR to 2.5Y, value of 4 to 6, and chroma 4 to 6. Texture of the fine-earth fraction is loam or silt loam.
The Bt horizon has a hue of 5YR to 10YR, value 4 or 6, and chroma 4 to 8. Textures in the fine-earth fraction are sandy loam, loam, or silt loam. Some pedons have subhorizons of clay loam or silty clay loam.
The BC horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. Textures in the fine-earth fraction are loam, silt loam, clay loam, or silty clay loam.
The C horizon, where present, has variegated hue of 5YR to 10YR, value 5 or 6, and chroma 4 to 8. Textures in the fine-earth fraction are silt loam and loam.
COMPETING SERIES: These are the Galen, Dryden, Elmdale, and Perrin series. Galen soils have a Bt horizon composed of lamellae and form in sandy deltaic deposits. Dryden and Perrin soils have thinner sola and free carbonates in the series control section. Elmdale soils have free carbonates in the series control section and form in glacial till.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Mt. Zion soils are on mountain backslopes and footslopes. Slopes are smooth or convex. Slopes ranges from 0 to 25 percent. The soils form in colluvium and residuum weathered from metabasalt and metarhyolite. Surface stones and boulders range from 0 to 10 percent. Mean annual air temperature is 45 to 55 degrees F, and annual precipitation is 35 to 45 inches. Climate is temperate and humid.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Catoctin, Foxville, Hatboro, Lantz, Lew, Myersville, Philomont, Purcellville, Rohrersville, and Tankerville soils. Hatboro and Foxville soils form in alluvium and have a seasonally high water table within 20 inches of the surface. Rohrersville and Lantz soils formed in local colluvium and have a water table within 20 inches of the surface. Lew soils have more than 35 percent rock fragments in the particle size control section. Catoctin and Myersville soils are well drained. Philomont soils lack redoximorphic features in the solum. Purcellville soils have greater than 18 percent clay in the particle size control section. Tankerville soils are less than 40 inches to a lithic contact.
DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Moderately well drained. The potential for surface runoff is negligible to very high. Permeability is moderate in the upper subsoil and moderately slow in the lower subsoil and substratum.
USE AND VEGETATION: Uses for general crops, pasture, and forest production. Native vegetation is mixed hardwood.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Maryland, Virginia, and Pennsylvania. The extent is small.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Morgantown, West Virginia.
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Washington County, Maryland, 1998
Diagnostic features recognized in this pedon:
a. Ochric epipedon - the zone from .5 to 6 inches (Oi, Ap1, Ap2, and BE horizons)
b. Argillic horizon - the zone from 12 to 46 inches (Bt1, Bt2, and Bt3 horizons)
c. Redoximorphic features are below 31 inches
d. Lithic contact at 69 inches
Additional lab data sampled as 94MD021005