Established Series
Rev. HCD


The Needmore series consist of moderately deep, well drained soils that formed in residuum from calcareous shale. Slopes range from 2 to 70 percent.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine, mixed, active, mesic Ultic Hapludalfs

TYPICAL PEDON: Needmore silt loam--pastured. (Colors are for moist soil unlesss otherwise stated.)

Ap--0 to 7 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt loam; moderate medium granular structure; friable; many fine roots; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary. (4 to 8 inches thick)

BE--7 to 10 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silty clay loam; moderate fine subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine roots; moderately acid; clear smooth boundary. (0 to 4 inches thick)

Bt1--10 to 24 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silty clay; moderate and strong medium subangular blocky structure; very firm; common distinct clay films on faces of peds; moderately acid; clear smooth boundary.

Bt2--24 to 32 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silty clay, common medium faint and distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/6), strong brown (7.5YR 5/6), and very pale brown (10YR 7/3) mottles; moderate medium and coarse angular blocky structure; very firm; few fragments of dark weathered shale; few faint clay film on faces of peds; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. (combined thickness of the Bt horizon is 15 to 40 inches thick)

C--32 to 37 inches; mottled yellowish brown (10YR 5/6), brownish yellow (10YR 6/6), strong brown (7.5YR 5/6), and very pale brown (10YR 7/3) seams and pockets of silty clay soil material between partially weathered calcareous shale fragments; massive; very firm; moderately acid; gradual wavy boundary. (0 to 7 inches thick)

Cr--37 + inches; dark calcareous shale.

TYPE LOCATION: Hawkins County, Tennessee; 5 miles south of Rogersville on State Highway 66 and 150 feet east of Highway 66 on Kite Road, 20 feet north of Kite Road.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Thickness of solum ranges from about 15 to 40 inches and depth to weathered calcareous shale rock ranges from 20 to 40 inches. Fragments of shale range from 0 to 35 percent in the A and B horizons and 0 to 70 percent in the C horizon. Reaction is very strongly acid to slightly acid except where limed. The C horizon or the subhorizon above bedrock is moderately acid or slightly acid.

The Ap or A horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 2 or 6, and chroma of 2 to 6. Texture is silt loam except that eroded areas are silty clay loam, silty clay, or clay

The BE horizon, where present, has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 4 to 6. Texture is silt loam, or silty clay loam.

The Bt horizon has hue of 5YR to 2.5Y, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. Some pedons are mottled in shades of yellow, brown, and red. Texture is silty clay or clay. Some pedons have a thin horizon of silty clay loam in the upper Bt.

The C horizon, where present, has colors similar to the Bt horizon of is mottled in shades of these colors. Texture is silty clay, clay or silty clay loam.

COMPETING SERIES: These are the Alsup, Ebal, Fauquier, Lenberg, Montalto, Norton, Orenda, Pisgah, and Poplimento series. The Alsup, Ebal, Faquier, Montalto, Norton, Orenda, Pisgah, and Poplemento series do not have paralithic contact at 20 to 40 inches. The Lenberg soils have low chroma mottles in the lower part of the argillic horizon.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Needmore soils are on gently sloping to sloping hilltops. Slopes range from 2 to 70 percent. The soil formed in residuum weathered from calcareous shales. The mean annual temperature is 57 degrees F., and the mean annual precipitation is 43 inches.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Apison, Armuchie and Sequoia soils. Apison soils are less clayey than Apison soils. Armuchie soils have a thiner solum and are from noncalcareous shale. Sequoia soils have a base saturation less than 35 percent.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained; medium runoff; moderately slow permeability.

USE AND VEGETATION: Most areas are used for growing pasture. A few are used for corn, hay, tobacco, and small grains. The native vegetation is forests consisting of dominantly of oaks, hickories, elms, maples, beech, and dogwood.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: The Ridge and Valley section of Tennessee, the Pennyroyal region of Kentucky, and possibly Arkansas.


SERIES ESTABLISHED: Hamblen County, Tennessee; 1941

REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are;

Ochric epepedon - 0 to 7 inches (Ap horizon)

Argillic horizon - 10 to 32 inches (Bt1 and Bt2 horizons)

Paralithic contact - weathered calcareous shale at 37 inches.

National Cooperative Soil Survey