LOCATION SHINBONE NCEstablished Series
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-loamy, siliceous, active, mesic Typic Hapludults
TYPICAL PEDON: Shinbone loam, on a 21 percent southwest-facing intermediate mountain side slope, elevation 3,696 feet--forested. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)
Oe--0 to 2 inches, matted roots and moderately decomposed leaves and twigs.
A--2 to 6 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) dry; weak medium subangular blocky structure; very friable; few medium and common fine roots; many very fine or fine tubular pores; 5 percent by volume channers; extremely acid; clear smooth boundary. (1 to 8 inches thick)
BA--6 to 9 inches, brown (10YR 5/3) loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine and few medium roots; common fine or medium tubular pores; 5 percent by volume channers; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. (0 to 6 inches thick)
Bt1--9 to 18 inches, light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) channery loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine or medium roots; common fine or medium tubular pores; few faint clay films on faces of peds; 20 percent by volume channers; very strongly acid; diffuse wavy boundary.
Bt2--18 to 34 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) channery loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; few fine or medium tabular pores; common faint clay films on faces of peds; common distinct clay bridges between sand grains; 15 percent by volume channers; very strongly acid; diffuse wavy boundary. (Combined thickness of Bt horizon is 15 to 40 inches.)
C--34 to 47 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) channery fine sandy loam; many prominent distinct very pale brown (10YR 8/2) mottles; massive; friable; few very fine roots; few very fine to medium tubular pores; few distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) clay films on surfaces of rock fragments; 20 percent by volume channers; very strongly acid; diffuse irregular boundary. (0 to 15 inches thick)
Cr--47 to 83 inches; weathered, multicolored, fractured low-grade metasandstone, partially consolidated but can be dug with difficulty with by spade; few fine roots in cracks that are spaced more than 4 inches apart.
TYPE LOCATION: Yancey County, North Carolina; about 10.5 miles northwest of Burnsville on U.S. Highway 19W to Ramseytown; 7.9 miles west on U.S. Highway 19W to Spivey Gap and US Forest Service Road 278; 1.0 mile north on U.S. Forest Service Road 278 to the intersection with twin gates; proceed through the right gate, 0.3 mile to a second gate on left; 0.3 mile southeast, 10 feet above the road in woods; Chestoa USGS quadrangle; lat. 36 degrees, 02 minutes, 14 seconds N., and long. 82 degrees, 25 minutes, 24 seconds W.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Solum thickness ranges from 20 to 48 inches. Depth to paralithic contact at the upper boundary of the Cr horizon ranges from 40 to 60 inches below the soil surface. Depth to lithic contact is more than 60 inches. Flakes of mica are none or few throughout. Rock fragments range from none to less than 35 percent throughout. Reaction ranges from extremely acid to moderately acid, except where surface layers have been limed.
The A or Ap horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 3 to 6, and chroma of 2 to 8. Horizons with value of 3, are less than 7 inches thick. Texture of the fine-earth fraction is coarse sandy loam, sandy loam, fine sandy loam, and loam.
The BA or BE horizon, where present, has hue of 7.5YR or 2.5Y, value of 3 to 6, and chroma of 3 to 8. Texture of the fine-earth fraction is coarse sandy loam, sandy loam, fine sandy loam, and loam.
The Bt horizon has hue of 7.5YR to 2.5Y, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. Texture of the fine-earth fraction is commonly loam, but includes sandy clay loam or clay loam.
The BC or CB horizon, where present, has hue of 7.5YR to 2.5Y, value of 4 to 8, and chroma of 4 to 8. Texture of the fine-earth fraction is loamy sand, coarse sandy loam, sandy loam, fine sandy loam, and loam.
The C horizon is multicolored or it has hue of 5YR to 2.5Y, value of 3 to 8, and chroma of 3 to 8 and may be mixed or mottled in shades of these colors. Texture of the fine-earth fraction is coarse sandy loam, sandy loam, fine sandy loam, and loam.
The Cr horizon is weathered, multicolored low-grade metasedimentary bedrock. It is partially consolidated but can be dug with difficulty with hand tools. Roots, where present, are in cracks or seams spaced more than 4 inches apart.
COMPETING SERIES: There are no other series in this family. Soils in a closely related family are the Alonzville, Bailegap, Beersheba, Gunstock, Hambrook, Harmiller, Jefferson, Keener, Lily, Lonewood, Marr, McCamy, Raftville (T), Riney, Sassafras, and Sunnyside series. Alonzville, Hambrook, Jefferson, Keener, Marr, Sassafrass, and Sunnyside soils are very deep. Bailegap, Beersheba and Gunstock soils have a lithic contact at 40 to 60 inches. Harmiller soils have paralithic contact at depths of 20 to 40 inches. Lonewood and Riney soils are deep and very deep to paralithic or lithic contact. Lily, McCamy, and Raftville soils have a lithic contact at 20 to 40 inches.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Shinbone soils are on ridges and side slopes of low and intermediate mountains, commonly where there is a linear or convex surface. Slopes range from 15 to 50 percent. Elevation ranges from about 1,500 to 4,500 feet. Shinbone soils formed in residuum affected by soil creep in the upper part, weathered from low-grade metasedimentary rock such as feldspathic metasandstone, metasiltstone, and phyllite. . The mean annual air temperature ranges from about 46 to 57 degrees F., the frost free season ranges from about 100 to 150 days, and the average annual rainfall ranges from about 48 to 64 inches.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: In addition to the competing Harmiller soils, these are the Cataska, Chestoa, Jeffrey, Lostcove, Marbleyard, McCamy, Soco, Spivey, Sylco, and Whiteoak soils. Cataska, Soco, and Sylco soils are typically on steeper parts of nearby landforms. Cataska soils are shallow and Soco soils are moderately deep to paralithic contact. Sylco soils are moderately deep to lithic contact. Chestoa and Jeffrey soils are on adjacent landscapes with cool aspects and are moderately deep to lithic contact. Chestoa soils have siliceous mineralogy and Jeffrey soils have mixed mineralogy. Lostcove, Spivey, and Whiteoak soils are on colluvial landscapes. They are very deep to bedrock. Marbleyard soils are loamy-skeletal and have a lithic contact at 20 to 40 inches below the soil surface. McCamy soils have a lithic contact at 20 to 40 inches below the soil surface.
DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained; slow runoff where forest litter has not been disturbed, and medium to very rapid runoff where litter has been significantly disturbed or removed; moderate permeability.
USE AND VEGETATION: Most areas of Shinbone soils are forested. Common trees are scarlet oak, chestnut oak, white oak, black oak, hickory, eastern white pine, and some Virginia pine, pitch pine, and shortleaf pine. A small acreage is cleared and used for pasture and hayland.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: North Carolina, and possibly Georgia, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia. The series is of small extent.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Morgantown, West Virginia
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Mitchell County, North Carolina, 1992.
REMARKS: Soils now included with the Shinbone series were previously mapped with Brasstown soils. Brasstown soils have an argillic horizon with hue that is dominantly 2.5YR or 5YR and have mixed mineralogy. The clay content of the particle-size control section for Shinbone soils averages about 18 percent. The fine silt content averages about 35 percent and ranges from about 25 to 45 percent. According to engineering index data, a large portion of the silt content is very fine silt. The 10/01 revision places this soil in the active CEC activity class based on NSSL data.
Diagnostic horizons and soil characteristics recognized in this pedon are:
Ochric epipedon - the zone from the soil surface to a depth of 9 inches (Oe, A, and BA horizons)
Argillic horizon - the zone from 9 to 34 inches (Bt1 and Bt2 horizons)
Paralithic contact - weathered bedrock contact at 47 inches (upper boundary of the Cr horizon)
ADDITIONAL DATA: Characterization data is available from the National Soil Survey Laboratory, Lincoln, NE; pedon number S88NC-199-014.
SIR = NC0248 MLRA = 130