LOCATION STONE              OH
Established Series
Rev. RMG-PCJ
05/2007

STONE SERIES


The Stone series consists of deep, somewhat poorly drained soils formed in till or lacustrine material, poorly sorted outwash, local drift, and occasionally in the underlying residuum from limestone. These soils are on outwash terraces, outwash plains, and abandoned stream terraces. Slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 940 mm (37 inches), and mean annual air temperature is about 10 degrees C (50 degrees F).

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, mesic Aquic Hapludolls

TYPICAL PEDON: Stone silty clay loam, on a slope of less than 1 percent in corn stubble at an elevation of 277 meters (909 feet) above mean sea level. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)

Ap--0 to 30 cm (0 to 12 inches); very dark gray (10YR 3/1) silty clay loam, gray (10YR 5/1) dry; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; common medium and fine roots; 2 percent igneous and limestone cobbles and chert gravel; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary. [25 to 38 cm (10 to 15 inches) thick]

Bw--30 to 51 cm (12 to 20 inches); light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) clay loam and silty clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine and very fine roots; common distinct very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) organic coatings on faces of peds; common medium distinct grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) iron depletions with diffuse boundaries in the matrix and in pores; many medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation in the matrix; few fine prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) iron concretions with diffuse boundaries in the matrix; 2 percent igneous and limestone cobbles and chert gravel; neutral; gradual wavy boundary. [13 to 63 cm (5 to 25 inches) thick]

2BC--51 to 76 cm (20 to 30 inches); light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) very gravelly silt loam; weak coarse subangular blocky structure; friable; very few very fine roots; common medium distinct grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) iron depletions with diffuse boundaries in the matrix; many medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation in the matrix; 20 percent limestone gravel; 10 percent limestone cobbles; 5 percent limestone channers; 10 percent completely weathered limestone gravel; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. [13 to 38 cm (5 to 15 inches) thick]

2C--76 to 107 cm (30 to 42 inches); yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) very cobbly loam; massive; friable; common medium distinct grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) iron depletions with diffuse boundaries in the matrix; common medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) masses of iron accumulation in the matrix; 30 percent limestone cobbles; 20 percent limestone gravel; 5 percent shale gravel; slightly effervescent; moderately alkaline; clear wavy boundary. [13 to 51 cm (5 to 20 inches) thick]

3R--107 cm (42 inches); highly fractured limestone.

TYPE LOCATION: Delaware County, Ohio; Radnor Township; 1750 feet north and 2010 feet west of the intersection of Lawrence Rd. and Meredith Rd.; USGS Ostrander, Ohio topographic quadrangle; lat. 40 degrees 21 minutes 01.3 seconds N. and long. 83 degrees 09 minutes 33.4 seconds W., NAD 27.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS:
Depth to the lithic contact: 102 to 152 cm (40 to 60 inches)
Depth to the base of the mollic epipedon: 25 to 38 cm (10 to 15 inches)
Thickness of the solum: 51 to 102 cm (20 to 40 inches)
Depth to the base of the cambic horizon: 51 to 102 cm (20 to 40 inches)
Depth to carbonates: 51 to 102 cm (20 to 40 inches)
Rock fragments: dominantly limestone, crystalline, and hard black shale

Ap or A horizon:
Hue: 10YR
Value: 2 or 3 (4 or 5 dry)
Chroma: 1 or 2
Texture: silty clay loam or clay loam
Rock fragment content: 2 to 14 percent
Reaction: slightly acid to slightly alkaline

Bw horizon:
Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
Value: 4 or 5 (3 when the mollic epipedon includes the upper part)
Chroma: 3 or 4
Texture: silty clay loam or clay loam
Rock fragment content: 2 to 14 percent
Reaction: neutral or slightly alkaline

2BC horizon:
Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
Value: 4 or 5
Chroma: 1 to 4
Texture: silt loam or loam or the gravelly, very gravelly, cobbly, or very cobbly analogs of these textures
Rock fragment content: 10 to 50 percent
Reaction: neutral to moderately alkaline and may contain carbonates

2C or 3C horizon:
Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, 5Y, or is neutral
Value: 4 to 7
Chroma: 0 to 8
Texture: very gravelly, extremely gravelly, very channery, extremely channery, very cobbly, extremely cobbly, very stony, or extremely stony analogs of loam or silt loam
Rock fragment content: 35 to 80 percent limestone channers, which may be subrounded, and limestone gravel, cobbles, and stones
Calcium carbonate equivalent: 40 to 75 percent
Reaction: moderately alkaline

COMPETING SERIES: These are the Arkton, Crippin, Floyd, Fostoria, Kensett, Merton, Nicollet, Normania, Ottosen, Readlyn, Snider, Walnut Grove (T), and Wilmonton series. Arkton, Crippin, Floyd, Fostoria, Merton, Nicollet, Normania, Ottosen, Readlyn, Snider, Walnut Grove, and Wilmonton soils do not have a lithic contact within a depth of 152 cm (60 inches). Kensett soils have a lithic contact within a depth of 102 cm (40 inches).

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Stone soils are on footslopes on outwash terraces, outwash plains, and abandoned stream terraces of Wisconsinan age. Slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent. The soils formed in till or lacustrine material, poorly sorted outwash of high calcium carbonate content, and local drift occasionally mixed with the underlying residuum from limestone. Rock fragments are mainly limestone, crystalline, and shale. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 787 to 1067 mm (31 to 42 inches). Mean annual air temperature ranges from 8 to 12 degrees C (46 to 54 degrees F).

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Blount, Glynwood, Leoni, Milton, Pewamo, and Scioto soils. The very deep Blount, the very deep, moderately well drained Glynwood, the moderately deep, well drained Milton, and the very deep, very poorly drained Pewamo soils are on adjacent till plains. The well drained Leoni soils are on adjacent kames and eskers. The well drained Scioto soils are on adjacent outwash terraces, kames, and eskers.

DRAINAGE AND SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY: Somewhat poorly drained. The depth to the top of an intermittent apparent water table ranges from 15 to 30 cm (0.5 to 1 foot) between December and May in normal years. The potential for surface runoff is negligible to low. The rarely flooded phase is subject to flooding from late fall to spring. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is moderately high in the upper part and moderately high or high in the lower part. Permeability is moderately slow in the upper part and moderate or moderately rapid in the lower part.

USE AND VEGETATION: Most areas are cultivated. Corn, soybeans, and small grains are the principal crops. Native vegetation is mixed hardwoods.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Central Ohio; MLRA 111B. The series is of small extent, with about 1,000 acres.

MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Indianapolis, Indiana.

SERIES ESTABLISHED: Delaware County, Ohio, 1996.

REMARKS: The Stone series has previously been mapped as Millsdale and Westland soils in Delaware County.

Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
Mollic epipedon: from the surface to a depth of 30 cm (Ap horizon).
Cambic horizon: from a depth of 30 to 76 cm (Bw, 2BC horizons).
Lithic contact: at 107 cm (top of the 3R layer).
Aquic conditions: redox features visible in horizons between a depth of 30 and 107 cm.

A rarely flooded phase is recognized.

ADDITIONAL DATA: Laboratory characterization data from The Ohio State University Characterization Laboratory is available for DL-59, the typical pedon.


National Cooperative Soil Survey
U.S.A.